The danger that remains

See updates through May 23, 2021, at end of post.


In the wake of yesterday’s (January 6, 2021) violence, in which Trumpsters overran the U.S. Capitol, disrupting the certification of Joe Biden’s election victory from last November (2020),[1] I would offer two major comments.

“This is what we see in failing countries,” [Representative Abigail Spanberger, a former Central Intelligence Agency case officer] said. “This is what leads to a death of democracy.”[2]

First, even as Donald Trump encouraged and praised the rioters—“[o]ne administration official described Trump’s behavior Wednesday [January 6] as that of ‘a total monster,’ while another said the situation was ‘insane’ and ‘beyond the pale,’” as some aides discussed invoking the 25th amendment to remove Trump from office, some resigned, and others considered resigning[3]—even as he finally told the protesters to “go home,”[4] this is not the “insurrection,” so labeled by Mitt Romney[5] and National Public Radio[6] among others, to worry about. Though the possibility diminishes with Trump’s very much belated assent to an “orderly transfer of power,”[7] the insurrection I am concerned about remains the one that I (and others) have repeatedly warned about, even when Trump was being impeached, when and if right-wing militia groups, including members of military and police forces, take up arms.[8]

There is much here we do not know:

  1. Really, the lengths to which right-wing militia groups are willing to go to to support Trump: In my thinking, I have associated right-wing militia with authoritarian populism, but also, I have come to understand that the lines between authoritarian populism, paleoconservatism, and social conservatism are a lot fuzzier[9] than even I thought when I wrote my dissertation.[10] All three of these tendencies, which make up nearly the entirety of Trump’s base, may very well interpret Trump’s imminent departure from power as a threat.[11] The question will be whether they view this threat as existential, compelling action, or they simply view Trump as a martyr.

  2. The lengths to which right-wing militia groups are able to go to to support Trump: This depends on a number of unknowns. First, what strength, in manpower and in weaponry, including arms and ammunition which they may be able to seize from military and police armories, can right-wing militia groups muster? Second, how effective can they really be? How well do disparate groups coordinate with each other?

These latter questions raise considerable doubt about the ability of right-wing militia to react, even if they choose to do so. But the third question is, how well do they properly assess their own ability? How much support do they think they can draw, and how much can they really draw, from the population that they cannot now count?

Experienced military leaders would know to be cautious about all of these questions, and surely more, but we do not know the quality of military leadership within right-wing militia groups. Misjudgments have been known to occur. They can be catastrophic.

Second, my reading of the situation as I was tossing and turning this morning is that the Democrats will likely emerge as the ‘reasonable’ party and that Republicans will likely emerge as having gone ‘too far’ in their support for Trump.

But something else needs to be understood here, that both parties embraced a neoconservative and neoliberal consensus following the fall of the Berlin Wall.[12] These policies, by favoring the rich at the intentional expense of workers and of the poor,[13] have contributed to a sense of despair among subaltern groups.

Some, especially the young among these groups break to the Left, hence an increased popularity of democratic socialism (not to be confused with the authoritarian socialism of so-called but not really[14] “communist” nations). Some, especially among those who lived through the tumult of the 1960s and 1970s, break to the right.

I say this not to suggest an equivalence—such would be both false and amoral—but to point to a malicious elite whose determination to preserve and extend their own power and privileges over the rest of us,[15] even now as newly-impoverished people lose their jobs, their homes, and their health care in a pandemic,[16] contributes to the backlash we see today.

These disparate so-called “radicalizations” intertwine in unexpected and unhelpful ways, as the right embraces the same police[17] and a criminal injustice system[18] often rightly criticized by the Left for racism, indeed white supremacy,[19] as the right insists on a lethal capitalism[20] that the Left rightly insists is the problem, and as the right embraces a vicious brutality[21] while the Left rightly seeks empathy.

These intertwined oppositions form contradictions; I see no way to understand them as paradoxes nor any way to ameliorate them. Hence, I have repeatedly argued for a break-up of the country.[22]

It may well be that a widespread revulsion to yesterday’s events will diminish support for the extreme right. Perhaps I will see fewer Trump campaign signs and the like when I go out today. Maybe, if I’m really lucky, I will see fewer Confederate flags. But as with the Civil War, those people are still there; their motivations are unchanged and the issues remain unresolved. The possibility of armed conflict remains.


Update, January 8, 2021: Folks are noticing a discrepancy between the U.S. Capitol Police response to white supremacists and other mostly white Trumpsters overrunning the U.S. Capitol and the often much more aggressive police response to Black Lives Matters protests.[23] This episode reinforces an impression of police as in league with white supremacy.[24] This concern should extend as well to the military.[25]


Update, January 9, 2021: Concern about white supremacist leanings among police[26] surely must increase as it appears the rioters who overran the U.S. Capitol[27] had help from among the very police tasked with protecting the building.[28]


Update, January 11, 2021: There seems to be some question of how to refer to the January 6, 2021, riot in which a mix[29] of right-wing rioters overran the U.S. Capitol, seeking to disrupt a Congressional certification of Joe Biden’s November (2020) election victory.[30] As a scholar, I worry about terminology, partly because I want neither to sensationalize—my conclusions will often be judged sensational regardless[31]— or exaggerate, but particularly when I still think that a more serious uprising may yet occur,[32] and I wish not to minimize that possibility.

It seems not to be a coup, both because it is judged to have lacked sufficient planning and because the military was not involved. But the rejection of the dictionary definition that occurs with the word coup[33] seems not to be happening with the words insurrection and sedition[34] as an article of impeachment introduced in the House of Representatives, which seems likely to pass, indicts Donald Trump for inciting an insurrection.[35]


Update #2, January 11, 2021: I am indeed, at last, seeing fewer campaign signs and flags for Donald Trump. They seem to be coming down at about the same pace as for Joe Biden. There are still some. I was dropping off a passenger in Natrona Heights, up along the Allegheny River from Pittsburgh, on the Allegheny County side, when I passed a parked pickup truck with a lot of flags mounted in its bed, including a Gadsden (“Don’t Tread On Me”) flag such as that apparently favored by right wing militia members.[36] I didn’t have the opportunity to see what other flags there were or even reliably how many (I’m guessing at least four).

I might also be seeing fewer Confederate flags but this was the first day since I wrote the original post that I’d really covered territory where I expect to find them.


Update #3, January 11, 2021: I have understood the presence of right wing militia members in the military to include those who join, seeking training.[37] But it appears there is also a significant problem the other way around, that is, in which militia groups recruit police and military.[38] The Pentagon is apparently aware of a growing hate group problem in its ranks but seems not to be tracking it.[39]


Update, January 12, 2021:

The [Federal Bureau of Investigation] has intelligence that pro-Donald Trump supporters are planning armed protests in 50 state capitals around the time of Joe Biden’s inauguration, according to reports.

The agency received information about an “identified armed group intending to travel to Washington DC on 16 January”, according to a briefing obtained by ABC News.

Warning of a potential “uprising” if the president was removed from office prematurely, the FBI said groups were calling for the “storming” of state, local, and federal government courthouses and administrative buildings if Congress attempts to enact the 25th Amendment prior to Inauguration Day.

Far-right social media users have discussed actions tied to January 20 for months, but the storming of the US Capitol “energised” the online chatter, said Jonathan Greenblatt, CEO of the Anti-Defamation League.[40]

I’m not sure this can even realistically happen but “members of the House [of Representatives] Armed Services Committee have made an unusual request that the Army’s Criminal Investigation Command review the some 15,000 troops National Guard troops set to be deployed for the inauguration ‘to ensure that deployed members are not sympathetic to domestic terrorists.’”[41]

In the past, right wing calls for massive demonstrations have resulted in somewhat less spectacular turnout. But as I’ve earlier explained, this time could be different.[42]


Update #2, January 12, 2021: I tackle the question of whether the riot on January 6, 2021, constitutes an insurrection or a coup in a new blog post entitled, “Riot or insurrection? Lies or madness?


Update, January 13, 2021: Security forces are beefing up their presence considerably for Joe Biden’s inauguration[43] following, ahem, a compromised response on January 6.[44]

Asked if he’s ever seen this much law enforcement reinforcement coming to the District, the newly-installed Chief [Robert] Contee, who is a veteran of the Metropolitan Police Department and a lifelong DC resident, answered, “not at this level, no.”

The Secret Service is taking the lead of inauguration security planning efforts as there is a growing concern among law enforcement officials that violent mobs’ success in breaching the Capitol has increased the potential for attacks because people may be emboldened to carry out violence.

“The chatter is off the charts right now,” one official said.[45]

30,000 National Guard troops have been requested from around the country; 20,000 are considered necessary. These are in addition to federal and local forces already in Washington, D.C.[46]

My guess—which is little more than that—is that this will indeed prove sufficient. Even assuming a full-on right-wing militia attack, I’m thinking it will take longer than the couple weeks since last Wednesday (January 6) to really pull it together. One way I could be wrong, of course, is if they’ve been actively planning for this all along in ways that the Federal Bureau of Investigation is not publicly aware of.

The absolutely crucial thing to understand about paleoconservatives, however, is that they are prone to overestimate their support among whites. They really and truly fail to understand how other whites can fail to perceive the threat that they perceive from “Blacks and browns.” Their derision of these other whites likely stems from their amazement.

Accordingly and given a largely (wealthy) white male power structure, paleoconservative militia groups very likely really believed Donald Trump and his allies when they insisted they would win. And the same likely applies to authoritarian populist militia. Whatever they throw together in this two-week period (from January 6) will be rushed.

A real risk, rather, will come from the sort of compromise we saw on January 6, where some troops and some police sympathize with or embrace hate groups.[47] This threat is difficult to quantify because no one has been keeping count, certainly not among regular police where they institutionally deny they are racist,[48] and not even at the Pentagon,[49] which is why “members of the House [of Representatives] Armed Services Committee have made an unusual request that the Army’s Criminal Investigation Command review the some 15,000 troops National Guard troops set to be deployed for the inauguration ‘to ensure that deployed members are not sympathetic to domestic terrorists,’”[50] a request I think the Pentagon cannot reasonably fulfill, especially now as that number grows to 30,000.[51]

So it’s really just a hunch on my part when I think this is not the right-wing militia groups’ moment, that their moment passed on January 6. Time will tell.


Update, January 14, 2021: The campaign signs are finally almost all down from an election that, after all, took place last November (2020). Except that as I crossed into Washington County (Pennsylvania) yesterday (January 13), specifically Union Township (not Uniontown) and Finleyville, I still saw a number of Trump campaign signs and flags, clearly undeterred by the Capitol riot a week before (January 6). The hardcore Trumpsters are still out there and in the part of Washington County that’s not at all very far from, indeed closest to where I live.

Meanwhile, Democrats have noticed that some of their Republican colleagues gave large tours—’reconnaissance missions’ might be the more appropriate term—on the day preceding the January 6 riots.[52] Yes, wackos do get elected. One need only look to the Pennsylvania legislature, “the same legislature that is stonewalling legalized recreational marijuana,[53] has desperately attempted and failed to undo Governor Tom Wolf’s orders meant to contain the pandemic,[54] and takes any excuse it can find to put more guns[55] in the hands of white supremacists,”[56] to see that.


Update, January 16, 2021: Gerald Seib, at the Wall Street Journal, supports a narrative that blames ‘Trumpism’ on neoliberal trade policy and largely treats racism and white supremacy as an ancillary issue. He sees the January 6, 2021, riot as a culmination.[57] There is, of course, more to it, including a 1,000-year history,[58] but to my knowledge, no one, including me, seems to have explored well how all this came together.

It is only rarely the case that phenomena can be attributed to singular causes;[59] the tendency to do so generally should be regarded as a fallacy of linear causation.

One example in which the economic explanation comes up short is in the stark discrepancy between the law enforcement response to the January 6 riot and to Black Lives Matter protests.[60] This discrepancy only becomes starker when the Federal Bureau of Investigation had warned in advance of a possible attack on January 6[61] and indeed that the Capitol Police had also warned themselves.[62] These warnings clearly indicated a possibility of violence,[63] yet the failings on that date “could mean that there were inherent biases, where people discounted this, and just didn’t think a large group of White conservatives who generally ally with the police and the GOP lawmakers, who were also present there that day, would be violent.”[64]


Update #2, January 16, 2021: In the New York Review of Books, Jonathan Freedland lays out a context and an account for the January 6 riot that seems much more intentional than what I had seen previously. The important aspect of Freedland’s account is that it requires neither intelligence nor sanity. In essence, Donald Trump was desperate to remain in power and having exhausted legal or regular military options for doing so, let loose a mob.[65] If you have access, his article is far more worthwhile than Fiona Hill’s, the latter of which requires Trump to possess both minimal intelligence and sanity, of why she thinks it was a coup.[66]

Freedland’s explanation also illuminates that Trump’s criminal exposure from inciting the insurrection[67] now likely constrains him from attempting a repeat for Joe Biden’s inauguration.[68]

Indeed, one problem with attempting to take power by force is that you need to succeed. Because when you fail, the full resources of the state may be deployed against you.


Update, January 17, 2021: The weak police response to Trumpsters overrunning the U.S. Capitol unsurprisingly fits a pattern.[69]


Update, January 18, 2021: I remain inclined[70] to think the U.S. Capitol riot on January 6[71] falls short of a coup,[72] but evidence is accumulating that the rioters were better prepared than I initially understood.[73] Doubts about police preparation, particularly relative to those for Black Lives Matter Protests, persist,[74] but

[Police] weren’t just facing an unruly protest, and they weren’t just underprepared—they were in a battle against a more organized and coordinated force than they had realized. A stunning Washington Post report lays out the scene. “Everything they did was in a military fashion,” a D.C. police commander said. One officer was overcome by protesters and heard rioters shout, “We got one! We got one! Kill him with his own gun!” Brian Sicknick, the officer who died of injuries sustained in the attack, was reportedly beaten with a fire extinguisher. . . .

“I didn’t want to be the guy who starts shooting, because I knew they had guns—we had been seizing guns all day,” Daniel Hodges, a D.C. police officer, told the Post. “And the only reason I could think of that they weren’t shooting us was they were waiting for us to shoot first. And if it became a firefight between a couple hundred officers and a couple thousand demonstrators, we would have lost.”

Once inside, some putschists were prepared. They came with schematics and maps of the building, and set about their work with purpose. Some wore tactical gear and carried flex ties, which would have been useful for kidnapping and hostage-taking. If not for the quick thinking of the Capitol Police officer Eugene Goodman, who drew a column away from the Senate floor, they might have walked through the unlocked doors and into a chamber still filled with lawmakers.

Only on Friday did it become clear how much danger [Mike] Pence had been in. Secret Service officers whisked Pence and his family to a hideaway in the Capitol—but just one minute before Goodman made his stand, and only about 100 feet from the stairs up which the officer was chased by the mob, according to the Post.[75]

The objection I’ve been raising is that even if more successful, this attack still would not have reversed the outcome. Nonetheless, it appears that the rioters actually believed they could compel such a result,[76] even if their plan for doing so was incoherent.

In truth, I don’t know if this is really a failing: Pretty consistently throughout my life, I have expected things to make more sense than they do and I have expected people to be more intelligent than they are. When my threshold is not met, I am dismissive. But my evaluation of this riot would be another example.


Update, January 19, 2021: Based on Federal Bureau of Investigation allegations in court documents, it appears that at least 30-40 people executed a coordinated, planned attack on the U.S. Capitol on January 6, 2021.[77] They would have been using the rest of the mob more as a distraction than as a diversion. As I understand all this, and assuming the veracity of allegations that have obviously not yet been tested in court, this rises to the level of a coup.[78]


Update, January 20, 2021: Now that conspiracy charges have been filed in the January 6, 2021, U.S. Capitol riot, the Wall Street Journal has more specific details[79] about the coup plot.[80] While we’ve not yet heard from the defense, the evidence appears damning.


Update, January 21, 2021: It appears some right wing militia leaders felt the January 6, 2021, coup was ludicrous and were not interested in participating even at the time, let alone for Joe Biden’s inauguration, that some were discouraged by a dissonance between their self-image as on the side of “law and order” and a mob overrunning the U.S. Capitol, and that some others were following Donald Trump’s orders to stand down.[81] In the event, none of them showed up to interfere with the inauguration.[82]


Update #2, January 21, 2021 (citation added, January 22, 2021): Despite the absence of physical violence at Joe Biden’s heavily fortified inauguration,[83] a failed coup attempt two weeks before that led to that fortification,[84] and a looming second impeachment that might bar Donald Trump from future office,[85] the conspiracy theorist mass media continues to spew election disinformation.[86] While some right wing militia groups declined to participate in the coup attempt for various reasons, some right wing militia may have stood down apparently only because Trump told them to.[87]

It’s hard to see where right wing militia will next have a significant opportunity to strike. What’s important to know is that they are still out there. The threat that they have always posed remains. And it has to be said, that significant portion of the U.S. population that continues to believe in Trump is also still there, even if Trump’s final sendoff from Joint Base Andrews was really rather dreary.[88]


Update, May 23, 2021: The sourcing for a Guardian story reporting ongoing threats following[89] the January 6 coup attempt[90] strikes me as sketchy:

The police documents were stolen and published by the ransomware attack group Babuk, and some were redistributed by the transparency organization Distributed Denial of Secrets, from whom they were obtained by the Guardian. Various outlets last week published stories based on the data showing intelligence indicating that far-right Boogaloo groups planned to attack various targets in the capital.[91]

Certainly, the story is plausible. Following the attack, a lot of folks, including me,[92] were concerned about the possibility of another attempt. So I’m inclined to give this report[93] the benefit of the doubt.

But there is doubt.

  1. [1]Ted Barrett, Manu Raju, and Peter Nickeas, “US Capitol secured, woman dead after rioters stormed the halls of Congress to block Biden’s win,” CNN, January 6, 2021, https://www.cnn.com/2021/01/06/politics/us-capitol-lockdown/index.html; Talia Lavin, “The Violent Crescendo of the MAGA Conspiracies,” New Republic, January 6, 2021, https://newrepublic.com/article/160814/trump-protesters-attack-us-capital; Rebecca Tan et al., “Trump supporters storm U.S. Capitol, with one woman killed and tear gas fired,” Washington Post, January 7, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/trump-supporters-storm-capitol-dc/2021/01/06/58afc0b8-504b-11eb-83e3-322644d82356_story.html
  2. [2]Rebecca Tan et al., “Trump supporters storm U.S. Capitol, with one woman killed and tear gas fired,” Washington Post, January 7, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/trump-supporters-storm-capitol-dc/2021/01/06/58afc0b8-504b-11eb-83e3-322644d82356_story.html
  3. [3]Philip Rucker et al., “Aides weigh resignations, removal options as Trump rages against perceived betrayals,” Washington Post, January 7, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/trump-resignations-25th-amendment/2021/01/07/e131ce10-50a3-11eb-bda4-615aaefd0555_story.html
  4. [4]Jeremy Herb et al., “Congress completes electoral count, finalizing Biden’s win after violent delay from pro-Trump mob,” CNN, January 7, 2021, https://www.cnn.com/2021/01/06/politics/2020-election-congress-electoral-college-vote-count/index.html; Margi Murphy, “Facebook, Instagram and Twitter lock Donald Trump’s accounts after praise for Capitol Hill rioters,” Telegraph, January 7, 2021, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2021/01/06/calls-twitter-facebook-mute-donald-trump-violence-breaks-capitol/; Philip Rucker et al., “Aides weigh resignations, removal options as Trump rages against perceived betrayals,” Washington Post, January 7, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/trump-resignations-25th-amendment/2021/01/07/e131ce10-50a3-11eb-bda4-615aaefd0555_story.html; Rebecca Tan et al., “Trump supporters storm U.S. Capitol, with one woman killed and tear gas fired,” Washington Post, January 7, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/trump-supporters-storm-capitol-dc/2021/01/06/58afc0b8-504b-11eb-83e3-322644d82356_story.html
  5. [5]Jeremy Herb et al., “Congress completes electoral count, finalizing Biden’s win after violent delay from pro-Trump mob,” CNN, January 7, 2021, https://www.cnn.com/2021/01/06/politics/2020-election-congress-electoral-college-vote-count/index.html
  6. [6]Alana Wise, “Senate Rejects Objection To Arizona Election Results,” National Public Radio, January 6, 2021, https://www.npr.org/sections/congress-electoral-college-tally-live-updates/2021/01/06/954164654/congress-reconvenes-after-violent-rioters-breach-u-s-capitol
  7. [7]Allie Malloy and Veronica Stracqualursi, “Trump pledges ‘orderly’ transition after riot and Biden win certification,” CNN, January 7, 2021, https://www.cnn.com/2021/01/07/politics/trump-biden-us-capitol-electoral-college-insurrection/index.html
  8. [8]David Benfell, “The least violent solution,” Not Housebroken, August 30, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2019/12/16/the-least-violent-solution/; David Benfell, “Bloody November,” Not Housebroken, October 13, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2020/09/08/bloody-november/; David Benfell, “Donald Trump’s ‘brown shirts,’” Not Housebroken, October 16, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2020/08/30/donald-trumps-brown-shirts/; David Benfell, “The very scary way to four more years,” Not Housebroken, October 16, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2020/09/25/the-very-scary-way-to-four-more-years/; David Benfell, “When the legitimacy of the system itself is threatened,” Not Housebroken, October 31, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2020/10/31/when-the-legitimacy-of-the-system-itself-is-threatened/; David Benfell, “When it’s over but it isn’t,” Not Housebroken, December 21, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2020/11/27/when-its-over-but-it-isnt/; David Benfell, “Underestimating the gravity of the situation, as Donald Trump faces a White House exit,” Not Housebroken, December 29, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2020/12/21/underestimating-the-gravity-of-the-situation-as-donald-trump-faces-a-white-house-exit/
  9. [9]David Benfell, “The seven tendencies of conservatism,” Irregular Bullshit, n.d., https://disunitedstates.com/the-seven-tendencies-of-conservatism/
  10. [10]David Benfell, “Conservative Views on Undocumented Migration” (doctoral dissertation, Saybrook, 2016). ProQuest (1765416126).
  11. [11]Marc Fisher, “The end of democracy? To many Americans, the future looks dark if the other side wins,” Washington Post, October 25, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/end-of-democracy-election/2020/10/25/3b8c0940-13d0-11eb-ba42-ec6a580836ed_story.html; Owen Jones, “Even if Biden wins, the world will pay the price for the Democrats’ failures,” Guardian, November 5, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/nov/05/biden-democrats-democratic-trump; Nathan Robinson, “Trump should have lost in a landslide. The fact that he didn’t speaks volumes,” Guardian, November 5, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/nov/05/trump-should-have-lost-in-a-landslide-the-fact-that-he-didnt-speaks-volumes; Philip Rucker and Robert Costa, “Election reveals deeper divides between red and blue America,” Washington Post, November 4, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/america-divided-rural-urban/2020/11/04/8ddac854-1ebf-11eb-b532-05c751cd5dc2_story.html; Ishaan Tharoor, “Trumpism is here to stay,” Washington Post, November 5, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2020/11/05/trumpism-here-to-stay/
  12. [12]Melvyn P. Leffler, “The Free Market Did Not Bring Down the Berlin Wall,” Foreign Policy, November 7, 2014, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2014/11/07/berlin_wall_fall_25_anniversary_reagan_bush_germany_merkel_cold_war_free_market_capitalism
  13. [13]David Benfell, “A piper needs paying,” Not Housebroken, December 30, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2020/12/19/a-piper-needs-paying/
  14. [14]Emma Goldman, “There Is No Communism in Russia,” in Red Emma Speaks: An Emma Goldman Reader, ed. Alix Kates Shulman, 3rd ed. (Amherst, NY: Humanity, 1998), 405-420.
  15. [15]David Benfell, “We ‘need to know how it works,’” Not Housebroken, March 19, 2012, https://disunitedstates.org/2012/03/19/we-need-to-know-how-it-works/; David Benfell, “Conservative Views on Undocumented Migration” (doctoral dissertation, Saybrook, 2016). ProQuest (1765416126).
  16. [16]David Benfell, “Imagine a malicious elite,” Not Housebroken, December 30, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2020/12/18/imagine-a-malicious-elite/
  17. [17]David Benfell, “On police,” Not Housebroken, August 12, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2020/08/10/on-police/
  18. [18]David Benfell, “On the pretense of ‘law and order,’” Not Housebroken, September 11, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2020/09/11/on-the-pretense-of-law-and-order/
  19. [19]David Benfell, “Donald Trump’s ‘brown shirts,’” Not Housebroken, October 16, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2020/08/30/donald-trumps-brown-shirts/
  20. [20]David Benfell, “The capitalist death cult,” Not Housebroken, December 24, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2020/03/27/the-capitalist-death-cult/; David Benfell, “A piper needs paying,” Not Housebroken, December 30, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2020/12/19/a-piper-needs-paying/; David Benfell, “Market homelessness,” Not Housebroken, January 1, 2021, https://disunitedstates.org/2021/01/01/market-homelessness/
  21. [21]David Benfell, “The Donald Trump supporters’ campaign message: Fuck Your Feelings,” Not Housebroken, December 11, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2020/08/26/the-donald-trump-supporters-campaign-message-fuck-your-feelings/
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