About my job hunt

Fig. 1. Cartoon created with the New Yorker‘s “Create your own cartoon” tool. #DIYNewYorker

To develop this page has been exceedingly difficult. The task is to channel an incandescent rage into coherence. It is undated as I continue to develop it.

But as I look around, I see that my poverty cuts me off from people with whom I can have real conversations, the conversations I have badly missed since finishing my Ph.D., and thus cuts me off from people who could offer real assistance in my job hunt. Conferences are no help—I can’t afford to attend them, can’t afford to take time off to attend them, let alone devote the time and resources it would take to prepare presentations for them.

There is a certain amount of romanticization that surrounds poverty. The poor are sometimes seen as resilient and as working hard, often to improve their children’s prospects—for example, the archetype of the mother scrubbing floors so her progeny can attend college. We are often credited with a straightforward (read, unnuanced) perspective that seems clarifying (yet is facile), borne of allegedly (but not really) “common” sense. There is even something of a backhanded compliment as well off folks gentrify the neighborhoods we have called home, displacing us, but seeking the aura of struggle, as if by these means, they could establish their worthiness and deservingness.

In the end, however, there’s a stigma that surrounds poverty found in what Thomas Shapiro called “[a] core element of the American credo,” which asserts “that talent, skill, hard work, and achievement largely determine life chances.”[1] We are poor, it is believed, even if rarely said aloud, because we deserve to be.

And so it follows that we are undeserving, undeserving even of the minimum conditions of life. No one else should pay higher taxes so that we might eat, have shelter, or even have a place to go to the bathroom. No one should risk their property values for affordable housing in their neighborhoods.[2] We are deserving of all the forms of structural violence[3] waged against us. We should take on enormous debt—and repay every last penny—to gain the education that might, only might, lift us from poverty. And we should be grateful for the shit jobs we can get,[4] if we can get them.

And because we are presumed unworthy, we may be systemically denied socially acceptable means of advancement toward socially acceptable ends.[5] Rather, we are exclusively means to other people’s ends.[6]

I am an example of the latter. Although I am highly educated (more on this later), my housing and job prospects are constrained to those of the poor and ill-educated. I have, at best, fleeting conversations with people with similar education and may never see them again. I am thus cut off from the connections that could aid me. And, as we shall see, the job hunt process is a scam, at least for people in my predicament.

There are a few things one learns from poverty. And most of it I learned long before I even returned to school, let alone completed my Ph.D. Some of it, however, has crystallized since.

First, nobody, but nobody, is in business to make other people rich. They’re in business to make themselves rich, generally at our expense. So when we explore an “opportunity” and are treated to golden images and the allure of money, we learn, sometimes the hard way, to hold on to our wallets with both hands.

Second, you might hear about the Bernie Madoffs because they targeted the rich. But a lot of scammers target the poor, because we’re desperate and vulnerable. We don’t have a lot of experience with the system working in our favor[7] so there’s a real good chance that even when we are scammed, we won’t file a police report.

Third, there are a lot of scams, and even the “opportunities” that are generally considered “legitimate” aren’t, in the end, very much different from them. We give a lot more than we get, no matter what.

The job hunting process bears all the hallmarks of a scam. I have jumped through hoops and jumped through hoops. I gather that people make money coming up with systems to filter my applications and résumés straight to the bit bucket. People make money aggregating my qualifications with those of a lot of others on job boards and social networks. Politicians run campaigns talking about people like me who have been “left behind”[8] and give tax breaks and regulatory exemptions to corporations for locating facilities in places where local people who need jobs don’t get them[9] and many of those who do get them are paid a pittance to endure often extreme abuse.[10] But for me, the reward, a real job, is never there.

Futility

My problems finding work, however, long precede my education and even as my education has changed me, I find my prospects remain the same. It is as if I have been type-cast in a particular role and can only find that role, no matter how inadequate it is for my needs.

I have been desperately seeking gainful employment, which I define as conforming to the conditions of article seven in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR),[11] since the dot-com crash in 2001. I have done everything everybody says to do. I have put myself on job boards, applied for countless positions, networked, sought informational interviews, had my résumé professionally written, returned to school, finished a bachelor’s degree, a master’s degree, and a Ph.D.

A few things are crystal clear at this point in my job hunt:

  1. On those exceedingly rare occasions I even get an interview, it is so hiring managers or committees can claim to have interviewed somebody besides their pre-selected candidate.[12] I am not interested in participating in any more such charades.

  2. When recruiters contact me, it is through an email blast based on some very old job board listing—I’ve been on every one that I could find at one point or another—that I don’t even know how to find anymore. Such contacts are insincere. These recruiters are a dime a dozen but, naturally, get away with charging a lot more. They substitute a quantity of applicants for quality and the hiring managers who rely on these recruiters could save themselves a small fortune by going to the job boards themselves. But of course they’re the smart ones.

  3. The only genuine recruiting occurs through and the only way one really finds work is through real life—not virtual—social networks. I’m on LinkedIn and I’ve been on every other pretender out there that I could find. I hear that some people actually do find work this way. I’ve yet to meet anyone who actually has.

  4. There are very few genuine friends in this world. The folks who are pulling down six-figure (or more) incomes and still plead that they cannot help me and that they have never had an opportunity to help me in all these years (it’s been since 2001) blatantly and transparently insult me with their flatulence.

  5. I am familiar with the concept of /dev/null. Telling me to fill in an application is telling me to go to hell. Seriously. These things each take hours to fill in, just so machines can filter them straight to the bit bucket. My résumé is below and no, I’m not wasting my time crafting one for each employer just so machines can filter them straight to the bit bucket. My contact information is here. There is absolutely nothing special about anybody’s bit bucket.

Through all of it, I receive zero useful feedback that would enable me to see how to, if it is even possible, adjust what I am doing. I have occasionally received critiques of my professionally-written résumé from other companies that want money to professionally write my résumé—when it seems quite apparent that the money I spent having my résumé professionally written in the first place was entirely wasted. These critiques have failed to adequately address my situation and are therefore even less compelling than that offered by my first professional résumé writer.

I am entitled to my rage. This experience has been absolutely dehumanizing and humiliating. And no one who has not experienced what I have been through here is entitled to question that or to tell me about how I should have a “positive attitude.” Because that “attitude” thing is just one more thing I’ve done that everyone says to do and has done me absolutely no good. It’s just one more lie, one more way of shifting blame away from systemic discrimination and onto me.

Discrimination

At some point, I am forced to a realization that this isn’t about me or my failings anymore, that I have done everything that can be done, and that nothing I do makes any difference: I simply can’t be so bad at job hunting that I shouldn’t have been able to get something in all the years since 2001. I am being systematically excluded from the job market and I need a job hunt process that works for me. The standard bullshit doesn’t work, I am beyond fed up with it, and stunningly, it has been all anyone could tell me to do.

My Ph.D. is in Human Science and I have a lot to offer but what I find is a system that seeks any excuse it can find to not even consider me, whether it be my age, an uneven employment history (I’ve been struggling to find work for a long time), my miserably failed attempt to change careers, my poverty[13] (expressed as a credit rating, which is not helped by my student loan debt), or my (not really[14]) radicalism,[15] and who knows what all else.

Thus, I am reduced to driving for Uber and Lyft, companies which are notorious for their abuse of drivers.[16] My alternatives[17] seem even worse.[18] I am desperate for a position that recognizes who I am and what I have accomplished. I see no path to attain it. And so I am caught in an infuriating and vicious cycle: I need to do something. I see nothing I can do.

A matter of human rights

One of the things I noticed pretty rapidly upon my return to school in 2003 was a substantial discrepancy between on the one hand, how I had been treated in shit jobs that I had experienced and in the job market, and on the other hand, how I was treated in school, even as an undergraduate. In the latter, I was treated as a human being with a right to self-actualization. In the former, I am treated like shit, existing solely to be flushed down the toilet. It’s one of those things, I guess, that as a poor person, I’m not supposed to notice.

If I am human, I have the rights in the ICESCR, if not through explicit ratification—the U.S. is one of only four countries in the world not to recognize this treaty[19]—then through unenumerated rights in the U.S. Constitution,[20] and I am utterly baffled as to how it is that any of article seven of the ICESCR should be even remotely controversial:

The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of just and favourable conditions of work which ensure, in particular:

(a) Remuneration which provides all workers, as a minimum, with:

(i) Fair wages and equal remuneration for work of equal value without distinction of any kind, in particular women being guaranteed conditions of work not inferior to those enjoyed by men, with equal pay for equal work;

(ii) A decent living for themselves and their families in accordance with the provisions of the present Covenant;

(b) Safe and healthy working conditions;

(c) Equal opportunity for everyone to be promoted in his employment to an appropriate higher level, subject to no considerations other than those of seniority and competence;

(d ) Rest, leisure and reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay, as well as remuneration for public holidays[21]

Even with a Ph.D., I am denied these rights and reduced to a subhuman condition. So of course I am furious.

Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible.[22]

I bear an insult implicit in the notion that I am somehow not worth what it costs to live, that I am somehow not worthy of human rights[23] recognized almost anywhere else in the world except in the United States,[24] and thus in effect that I am not human, but subhuman.

So to some degree, this page is a “fuck you.” Fuck you to all the assholes who have denied my humanity, denied my dignity. I hold you in utter contempt. I wish you a suffering ten times greater than my own for your malevolence.

What I am not

  1. I am not really a radical:

  2. I am clearly not a marketer or salesperson of any kind. If I were, I would have managed to sell my way into a job by now. My experience is quite the opposite: If I have to market something, it is doomed. This also means that any attempt I make at entrepreneurship is similarly doomed—this requires sales ability and my Ph.D. is sufficiently amorphous that it is unclear what, exactly, I would be “selling.” It also means I can’t just write a book: Yes, I can write the book, but authors are now required to market their work and I can’t do that. Finally, it means I cannot successfully seek grants to pay for scholarly work.[25]

  3. I am not really a high technology person:

  4. I am not impressed with big data (mining) or artificial intelligence idiocy:

  5. I also will not be involved in anything unethical (see my ethics page). That means, at least in part:

    • No deception of any kind. Deception includes both lying and the withholding of relevant information. It undermines personal autonomy.[26] I understand this to include all forms of sales and marketing, public relations, and propaganda. It also includes any support or tolerance for neoliberalism, which persists ideologically,[27] despite being utterly discredited intellectually.[28] In general, I will not subscribe to, nor will I support, any epistemological theory[29] in which a claim held to be true either merely because wealthy or powerful people say it is true or merely because it protects or benefits such people.[30]

    • Research or inquiry must protect participants and ensure that they benefit as well. This includes fairness, informed consent, voluntary participation, confidentiality, and anonymization. I will respect both individual and group rights.[31]

    • I oppose structural (denying important rights, such as to adequate food, shelter, health care, and self-actualization[32]) and physical violence against human and non-human animals[33]:

      • I reject the neoliberal devaluation, particularization, and essentialization of human beings as economic units of production compelled to compete with other human beings on conditions (such as the cost of living, environmental regulation, and labor regulation) over which they have little or no control. I will seek to undermine employers who revel in their freedom to abuse commodified human or non-human beings. Such abuse includes low pay, poor working conditions, and the exploitation of non-human animals.

      • Max Weber saw capitalism—but his point applies to any market system of exchange—as inherently privileging whomever has the greater power to say no, that is, the rich. The benefits and handicaps that follow from each act of exchange, each transaction, are cumulative; hence, economic systems of exchange inherently function to widen social inequality:[34]

        I have personal experience with these effects. I abhor them. And anybody who wants me to think better of capitalism, or any market system of exchange, should have done more to contain the absolute glee I have witnessed among the powerful in their freedom to treat workers as infinitely replaceable.[35]

    • I am not tolerant of bigots, whether they be wealthy and powerful[36] or members of any subaltern group, who insist or imply that their particular grievance is the only injustice that needs attending to or that their grievance is somehow more pressing than anyone else’s.[37] Bigotry deploys difference as a wedge between us and is incompatible with the building or sustenance of an inclusive movement:

      In general, I see justice as requiring that we address all subaltern group grievances pretty much simultaneously; it isn’t justice for all otherwise and the settlement that must be reached requires that all our interests be taken into account. So I think the idea that some groups deserve a higher priority than others cannot work, even if it were somehow fair to treat them that way.

      That said, I am aghast at the racism I am seeing in Pittsburgh, which I see combining with gun nuttery and a fetishization of combat to strongly suggest the possibility of white supremacist militia groups in the area:

      I feel powerless to do anything about it and, absent a real job here, I may be moving out of Pittsburgh by June 29, 2021.

    • I am also not impressed when people, usually from other subaltern groups, object to what I say, not on its merits, but because I, a white male, presumed to be privileged, have said it. There is most definitely an issue when privileged people claim to speak on behalf of subaltern groups,[38] but this amounts to a denial of my subaltern status and is an example both of how too many people view “privilege” as a binary rather than in a context of kyriarchy (see above) and of how subaltern groups among the Left have come to other others, especially white males, rather than building or sustaining an inclusive movement.[39]

      I will not be an “ally” when that means to sit down and shut up or “mind my lane.”

      I will be an ally when that means that we walk together, talk together, and jointly work together to address all our grievances.

    • Having suffered both structural and physical violence in my life,[40] I will act to affirm the development of human and non-human animals to their capabilities.[41]

I need to live but I also need to be able to live with myself. Surely, there should be a place for someone like me but, after so many years of failure, Robert Merton’s dilemma seems acute:[42] I lack acceptable means to legitimate goals; I insist on both, but I am no longer clear even on what jobs I should be seeking.

What I should be

I suppose most people might be tempted to skip over the acknowledgments frequently found in the front matter of books. I tend to pause for them, perhaps unintentionally, perhaps out of excessive curiosity, to gain a better sense of the authors. I recently found this, from one more fortunate than myself:

Although I am not a gambler, I also thank Lady Luck for being employed as a tenured professor, which makes my academic production possible. It might have been otherwise. Countless potential discoveries, innovations, and advancements are never made because most faculty and intellectuals have been discarded, living as coffee baristas and wait staff versus the alternative of a homeless existence in a McDonaldized contingent academia.[43]

The presumption that attends a Ph.D., a research degree accrediting its bearer as a “producer” of knowledge, is that I should be in academia, conducting research/inquiry, teaching classes. Alas, under neoliberalism this has become considerably more difficult. As I wrote earlier on a page that is now off line,

Unfortunately, under neoliberalism, higher education has largely gone the other way [from preparation for the responsibilities of citizenship]: We layer quantitative metrics on top of quantitative metrics in the name of “accountability;” we see the word “entrepreneurship,” a word that should never be used in the context of education, emblazoned across Ivy League university web sites as they promote their job training programs; academic departments retreat from funding cuts by reinforcing the high walls around their intellectual silos; positivism (or post-positivism, if you insist) ascends not on its own merit but in an emphasis on a naïve view of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); all while low-paid adjuncts enable ever richer university administrations. As Christian Smith puts it, “[t]he manure has piled up so deep in the hallways, classrooms, and administration buildings . . . that,” he writes, “I am not sure how much longer I can wade through it and retain my sanity and integrity.” Smith and I share an ideal of what the university is supposed to be. He laments “our crisis of faith in truth, reality, reason, evidence, argument, civility, and our common humanity.”[44] But given a choice he has and I seem not to, (I’m pretty sure he and) I would be nowhere else.

In 2015, Saybrook University began “teaching out” (closing down) its Human Science program. I completed the program later that year, formally graduating early the next. But with the toll austerity is taking on academia,[45] the siloization of the social sciences, and the apparent absence of any other human science program in English-speaking[46] academia, there is little to no opportunity for a transdisciplinary (or, as I prefer it, post-disciplinary) scholar such as myself to find even an adjunct position.

[O]f course, even before the coronavirus pandemic [in 2020], most graduating Ph.D.s faced bleak prospects. National Science Foundation data suggest that 40 percent of recent Ph.D. graduates had no employment commitments of any kind (not in the private sector, nor as postdocs, nor as contingent or tenure-track faculty). Of those who did get commitments in academe, tenure-track appointments were relatively rare. According to the American Association of University Professors, nearly three-fourths of all teaching jobs today are not tenure-eligible. As a new report by the American Federation of Teachers highlights, these non-tenure-track jobs tend to provide low wages, few benefits, and little job security — with contracts extended or retracted capriciously from semester to semester. Many contingent faculty members, even those working full time, have to rely on government assistance just to make ends meet. Many are also saddled by immense debt, incurred in the hope that a terminal degree would provide a pathway to a stable and well-compensated academic job.[47]

And if indeed I am wasting my time applying for such positions, then it is not only my time I am wasting, but that of those (my dissertation committee) who so generously write very nice reference letters on my behalf.[48] The truth is I can’t tell whether or not my application in academia will be taken seriously. What I do know is that whether it would land me a tenure track or other position or, as historically seems most likely, it would end up in the bit bucket, the reference letters are a required part of that application. How many such letters can I ask for? How many should I ask for? My professors helped me to something irreplaceable; they deserve far better than this abuse from me.

It might help if I had published more than my dissertation, but scholarly work takes time, resources, and the marketing ability to write a successful grant proposal. I am poor. I need funding I can’t get. In this way, academia excludes me. That this is the case crushes me.

What I am

I am highly educated, a critical theorist,[49] a vegetarian ecofeminist (vegan and anarchist),[50] a systems theorist,[51] a qualitative researcher,[52] and a writer. My Ph.D. is in Human Science. My dissertation critically examined conservative attitudes on unauthorized migration.[53] I have survived (barely) on the underbelly of capitalism for decades and am not a fan: I see both economic and political authority as extremely problematic. I care a great deal about the environment and about social, economic, and environmental justice. And politically, it has to be said that over a period spanning decades, I’ve heard a lot of promises—a lot of hot air and a lot of crocodile tears—from politicians, especially neoliberal politicians, about jobs.[54] I’ve heard that bullshit and I’ve heard that bullshit. And for all of it, I still don’t have a job. I’m not interested in promises. I want a real job. Now.


(contact information; I am on a lease in the area of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)

Education:

  • Ph.D., Human Science, January 2016, Saybrook University, San Francisco
  • M.A., Speech Communication, June 2009, California State University, East Bay, Hayward
  • B.A., Mass Communication, Dec. 2005, California State University, East Bay, Hayward
  • A.A., Business Data Processing, 1979, American River College, Sacramento

Writing and Teaching: I am a capable writer and college-level teacher with a focus on making difficult information easy to understand:

  • California State University, East Bay, 25800 Carlos Bee Blvd., Hayward, CA 94542 (June 2007 – June 2009) Taught public speaking classes, which included assigning, reviewing and grading student essays. Supervised tutors in the communication lab from April 2007 – June 2008.
  • Linuxcare, 650 Townsend St., Ste. 120, San Francisco, CA 94103 (Nov. 1999 – Feb. 2001) Worked as a technical writer, preparing user support materials, as well as system certification and solution validation reports.

Driver Supervision: I am an experienced driver and dispatcher and know how to work with drivers and perform back office work supporting drivers:

  • American Airport Shuttle, 120 Willow St., San Francisco, CA 94109, (October 2000 – June 2003) Worked as a dispatcher, answering phones, entering orders, assigning routes, coordinating via radio with drivers for airport shuttle service and taxi service.
  • Radio Cab, 49C Industrial Way, Greenbrae, CA 94904 (May 1994 – August 1997)

Tech literacy: My background includes computer programming and operation.

  • San Francisco General Hospital, 1001 Potrero Ave., San Francisco CA (September 1986 – December 1990) Worked graveyard shift, running nightly batch jobs. I developed new system monitoring programs, and worked with field maintenance personnel to ensure proper system operation.
  • Quinn Company, 10273 S. Golden State Hwy, Selma, CA (December 1981 – May 1985) Business applications programmer for Caterpillar Tractor. Maintained existing and developed new or replacement programs as needed.
  • Electronic Data Systems, Reno, NV (August 1980 – December 1981) Sole systems analyst/programmer on contract to U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Nevada State Office.

Driving: I have extensive experience as a driver and understand the support systems drivers need.

  • Uber, 1455 Market St #400, San Francisco, CA 94103 (Dec. 2016 – present)
  • Lyft, 185 Berry St, San Francisco, CA 94107 (Sept. 2016 – present)
  • Emerald City, 10811 Russet St., Oakland, CA 94603 (Jan. 2018 – Oct. 2018)
  • Top Shelf Medicinal, 414 Lesser, Oakland, CA 94601 (Apr. 2017 – Dec. 2017)
  • Yellow Checker Cab, 1880 S. 7th St., San Jose CA 95112 (May 2005 – September 2006)
  • North Bay Cooperative Taxi, 301 Irwin St., San Rafael CA 94901 (May 2001- November 2001)
  • Luxor Cab, 2230 Jerrold Ave., San Francisco, CA 94124 (Dec. 1997 – Dec. 1999)
  • Sausalito Cab, 3000 Bridgeway, Sausalito, CA 94965 (Aug. 1997 – Dec. 1997)
  • Radio Cab, 49C Industrial Dr., Greenbrae, CA 94904 (May 1994 – Aug. 1997)
  1. [1]Thomas M. Shapiro, “Introduction,” in Great Divides: Readings in Social Inequality in the United States, ed. Thomas M. Shapiro, 3rd ed. (New York: McGraw Hill, 2005), 3.
  2. [2]Benjamin Schneider, “Meet the PHIMBYs,” CityLab, April 13, 2018, https://www.citylab.com/equity/2018/04/nimbys-yimbys-and-phimbys-oh-my/557927/
  3. [3]Structural violence is defined in David P. Barash and Charles P. Webel, Peace and Conflict Studies (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2002).
  4. [4]Daniel D’Addario, “Amazon is worse than Walmart,” Salon, July 30, 2013, https://www.salon.com/control/2013/07/30/how_amazon_is_worse_than_wal_mart/; Timothy Egan, “The Corporate Daddy,” New York Times, June 19, 2014, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/20/opinion/timothy-egan-walmart-starbucks-and-the-fight-against-inequality.html; Barbara Ehrenreich, Nickel and Dimed (New York: Owl, 2001); Josh Eidelson, “Wal-Mart faces warehouse horror allegations and federal Labor Board complaint,” Salon, November 19, 2013, https://www.salon.com/test/2013/11/18/breaking_wal_mart_faces_warehouse_horror_allegations_and_federal_labor_board_complaint/; Josh Eidelson, “Tens of thousands protest, over 100 arrested in Black Friday challenge to Wal-Mart,” Salon, November 30, 2013, https://www.salon.com/test/2013/11/30/tens_of_thousands_protest_over_100_arrested_in_black_friday_challenge_to_wal_mart/; Josh Eidelson, “Finally paying for Wal-Mart’s sins: Wage theft settlement yields millions,” Salon, December 16, 2013, https://www.salon.com/test/2013/12/16/finally_paying_for_wal_marts_sins_wage_theft_settlement_yields_millions/; Josh Eidelson, “Freezing for Wal-Mart: Sub-zero warehouse temperatures spur Indiana work stoppage,” Salon, January 14, 2014, https://www.salon.com/test/2014/01/13/freezing_for_wal_mart_sub_zero_warehouse_temperatures_spur_indiana_work_stoppage/; Josh Eidelson, “Amazon Keeps Unions Out By Keeping Workers in Fear, Says Organizer,” Alternet, January 22, 2014, https://www.alternet.org/2014/01/amazon-keeps-unions-out-keeping-workers-fear-says-organizer/; Nichole Gracely, “‘Being homeless is better than working for Amazon,’” Guardian, November 28, 2014, https://www.theguardian.com/money/2014/nov/28/being-homeless-is-better-than-working-for-amazon; Steven Greenhouse, “The Changing Face of Temporary Employment,” New York Times, August 31, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/01/upshot/the-changing-face-of-temporary-employment.html; Erin Hatton, “The Rise of the Permanent Temp Economy,” New York Times, January 26, 2013, http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/01/26/the-rise-of-the-permanent-temp-economy/; Simon Head, “Worse than Wal-Mart: Amazon’s sick brutality and secret history of ruthlessly intimidating workers,” Salon, February 23, 2014, https://www.salon.com/control/2014/02/23/worse_than_wal_mart_amazons_sick_brutality_and_secret_history_of_ruthlessly_intimidating_workers/; Paul Jaskunas, “The Tyranny of the Forced Smile,” New York Times, February 14, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/15/jobs/the-tyranny-of-the-forced-smile.html; Allison Kilkenny, “Ohio Walmart Holds Food Drive For Its Own Employees,” Nation, November 18, 2013, https://www.thenation.com/article/ohio-walmart-holds-food-drive-its-own-employees/; Molly Kinder, “Trump’s State of the Union declared we’re in a ‘blue-collar boom.’ Workers don’t agree,” Brookings, February 6, 2020, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2020/02/05/trumps-state-of-the-union-declared-were-in-a-blue-collar-boom-workers-dont-agree/; Paul Krugman, “The Plight of the Employed,” New York Times, December 24, 2013, http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/12/24/the-plight-of-the-employed/; Paul Krugman, “The Fear Economy,” New York Times, December 26, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/27/opinion/krugman-the-fear-economy.html; Danielle Kurtzleben, “Read McDonald’s workers’ shocking harassment and discrimination complaints — and why they’re so important,” Vox, January 22, 2015, https://www.vox.com/2015/1/22/7873661/mcdonalds-lawsuit-harassment-discrimination; Edward McClelland, “You call this a middle class? “I’m trying not to lose my house,’” Salon, March 1, 2014, https://www.salon.com/test/2014/03/01/you_call_this_a_middle_class_i%E2%80%99m_trying_not_to_lose_my_house/; Mac McClelland, “I Was a Warehouse Wage Slave,” Mother Jones, March/April 2012, https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2012/02/mac-mcclelland-free-online-shipping-warehouses-labor/; Nathaniel Mott, “From Amazon warehouse workers to Google bus drivers, it’s tough working a non-tech job at a tech company,” Pando, October 9, 2014, https://pando.com/2014/10/09/from-amazon-warehouse-workers-to-google-bus-drivers-its-tough-working-a-non-tech-job-at-a-tech-company/; Marc Pilisuk with Jennifer Achord Rountree, Who Benefits From Global Violence and War (Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2008).; Ari Rabin-Havt, “Wal-Mart flunks its fact-check: The truth behind its sarcastic response to the Times,” Salon, June 25, 2014, https://www.salon.com/control/2014/06/25/walmart_flunks_its_fact_check_the_truth_behind_its_sarcastic_response_to_the_times/; Michael Sainato, “‘I’m not a robot’: Amazon workers condemn unsafe, grueling conditions at warehouse,” Guardian, February 5, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2020/feb/05/amazon-workers-protest-unsafe-grueling-conditions-warehouse; Alex Seitz-Wald, “Amazon is everything wrong with our new economy,” Salon, July 30, 2013, https://www.salon.com/test/2013/07/30/amazon_is_everything_wrong_with_our_new_economy/; Alana Semuels, “As employers push efficiency, the daily grind wears down workers,” Los Angeles Times, April 7, 2013, https://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-harsh-work-20130407-story.html; Alana Semuels, “How the relationship between employers and workers changed,” Los Angeles Times, April 7, 2013, https://www.latimes.com/business/la-xpm-2013-apr-07-la-fi-mo-harsh-work-history-20130405-story.html; Alana Semuels, “Tougher workplace makes home life worse too,” Los Angeles Times, April 7, 2013, https://www.latimes.com/business/la-xpm-2013-apr-07-la-fi-mo-harsh-work-history-20130405-story.html; Spencer Soper, “Inside Amazon’s Warehouse,” Lehigh Valley Morning Call, September 18, 2011, https://www.mcall.com/business/mc-xpm-2011-09-18-mc-allentown-amazon-complaints-20110917-story.html; Scott Sernau, Worlds Apart: Social Inequalities in a Global Economy, 2nd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge, 2006); Lindsay Wise, “Report: Temp jobs at all-time high in U.S.,” McClatchy, September 2, 2014, https://www.mcclatchydc.com/news/nation-world/national/economy/article24772543.html
  5. [5]I refer to Robert K. Merton, “Social Structure and Anomie,” in Social Theory, ed. Charles Lemert, 6th ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview, 2017), 181-190. However, barriers to social mobility remain formidable: Claude S. Fischer et al., “Why Inequality?” In Great Divides, ed. Thomas M. Shapiro, 3rd ed. (New York: McGraw Hill, 2005), 9-15; Jay MacLeod, “Social Immobility in the Land of Opportunity, in Great Divides, ed. Thomas M. Shapiro, 3rd ed. (New York: McGraw Hill, 2005), 22-26.
  6. [6]As Lawrence N. Hinman observes in Contemporary Moral Issues, 4th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2013), the commodification and objectification of persons seems inherent to capitalist relations.
  7. [7]Robert Merton sought to move from what he called a caricature of human wants and needs set against civilization to an understanding, which I oversimplify here, that set legitimate and illegitimate goals against acceptable and unacceptable means for attaining those goals. The poor rarely have access to acceptable means of attaining legitimate goals, which may lead them to consider more dubious means: Robert K. Merton, “Social Structure and Anomie,” in Social Theory, ed. Charles Lemert, 6th ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview, 2017), 181-190. In practice, this leads to a lot of street crime in which poor people are often both perpetrators and victims: Steven E. Barkan, Criminology: A Sociological Understanding, 3rd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006). But, as Merton understood, it also means the poor may seek “innovative” means. Scams, whether perpetrated by rich or poor, may lie in the latter; again, the poor are often victimized. What we see more generally is that stigmatization of the poor deflects attention from social inequality generally and enforces middle-class conformity as the poor are held as an example of what members of the middle class do not want to become. Poverty, as a trap, thus serves elite interests: Herbert J. Gans, The War Against the Poor (New York: Basic, 1995).
  8. [8]David Benfell, “Dickens redux,” Not Housebroken, August 3, 2011, https://disunitedstates.org/2011/08/03/dickens-redux/; Jonathan Capehart, “This is what’s ‘deplorable’ about Hillary Clinton, Donald Trump and this campaign,” Washington Post, September 12, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/post-partisan/wp/2016/09/12/this-is-whats-deplorable-about-hillary-clinton-donald-trump-and-this-campaign/; Michael Lerner, “Psychopathology in the 2016 Election,” Tikkun, November 3, 2016, http://www.tikkun.org/nextgen/psychopathology-in-the-2016-election-3; Ben Smith, “Obama on small-town Pa.: Clinging to religion, guns, xenophobia,” Politico, April 11, 2008, https://www.politico.com/blogs/ben-smith/2008/04/obama-on-small-town-pa-clinging-to-religion-guns-xenophobia-007737
  9. [9]Redevelopment often seems to lead to gentrification. California’s Silicon Valley is notorious for this, but I have also witnessed this in Marin City, California, where public housing now occupies a smaller area since the development of a mediocre shopping center, and the problem also appears in Pittsburgh. The question I always ask is, what happens to displaced people? In Oakland, California, we see homeless encampments the size of small villages: David Benfell, “A quick discourse historical analysis: ‘They say 1 in 3 won’t retire. They haven’t met you,’” Not Housebroken, September 9, 2018, https://disunitedstates.org/2018/09/09/a-quick-discourse-historical-analysis-they-say-1-in-3-wont-retire-they-havent-met-you/; David Benfell, “Crocodile tears for the homeless,” Not Housebroken, September 10, 2019, Crocodile tears for the homeless; Ryan Deto, “The displacement of Anthony Hardison from his Lawrenceville apartment is a microcosm of a neighborhood epidemic,” Pittsburgh City Paper, January 15, 2020, https://www.pghcitypaper.com/pittsburgh/the-displacement-of-anthony-hardison-from-his-lawrenceville-apartment-is-a-microcosm-of-a-neighborhood-epidemic/Content?oid=16556108
  10. [10]Daniel D’Addario, “Amazon is worse than Walmart,” Salon, July 30, 2013, https://www.salon.com/control/2013/07/30/how_amazon_is_worse_than_wal_mart/; Timothy Egan, “The Corporate Daddy,” New York Times, June 19, 2014, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/20/opinion/timothy-egan-walmart-starbucks-and-the-fight-against-inequality.html; Josh Eidelson, “Wal-Mart faces warehouse horror allegations and federal Labor Board complaint,” Salon, November 19, 2013, https://www.salon.com/test/2013/11/18/breaking_wal_mart_faces_warehouse_horror_allegations_and_federal_labor_board_complaint/; Josh Eidelson, “Tens of thousands protest, over 100 arrested in Black Friday challenge to Wal-Mart,” Salon, November 30, 2013, https://www.salon.com/test/2013/11/30/tens_of_thousands_protest_over_100_arrested_in_black_friday_challenge_to_wal_mart/; Josh Eidelson, “Finally paying for Wal-Mart’s sins: Wage theft settlement yields millions,” Salon, December 16, 2013, https://www.salon.com/test/2013/12/16/finally_paying_for_wal_marts_sins_wage_theft_settlement_yields_millions/; Josh Eidelson, “Freezing for Wal-Mart: Sub-zero warehouse temperatures spur Indiana work stoppage,” Salon, January 14, 2014, https://www.salon.com/test/2014/01/13/freezing_for_wal_mart_sub_zero_warehouse_temperatures_spur_indiana_work_stoppage/; Josh Eidelson, “Amazon Keeps Unions Out By Keeping Workers in Fear, Says Organizer,” Alternet, January 22, 2014, https://www.alternet.org/2014/01/amazon-keeps-unions-out-keeping-workers-fear-says-organizer/; Nichole Gracely, “‘Being homeless is better than working for Amazon,’” Guardian, November 28, 2014, https://www.theguardian.com/money/2014/nov/28/being-homeless-is-better-than-working-for-amazon; Steven Greenhouse, “The Changing Face of Temporary Employment,” New York Times, August 31, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/01/upshot/the-changing-face-of-temporary-employment.html; Erin Hatton, “The Rise of the Permanent Temp Economy,” New York Times, January 26, 2013, http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/01/26/the-rise-of-the-permanent-temp-economy/; Simon Head, “Worse than Wal-Mart: Amazon’s sick brutality and secret history of ruthlessly intimidating workers,” Salon, February 23, 2014, https://www.salon.com/control/2014/02/23/worse_than_wal_mart_amazons_sick_brutality_and_secret_history_of_ruthlessly_intimidating_workers/; Paul Jaskunas, “The Tyranny of the Forced Smile,” New York Times, February 14, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/15/jobs/the-tyranny-of-the-forced-smile.html; Allison Kilkenny, “Ohio Walmart Holds Food Drive For Its Own Employees,” Nation, November 18, 2013, https://www.thenation.com/article/ohio-walmart-holds-food-drive-its-own-employees/; Molly Kinder, “Trump’s State of the Union declared we’re in a ‘blue-collar boom.’ Workers don’t agree,” Brookings, February 6, 2020, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2020/02/05/trumps-state-of-the-union-declared-were-in-a-blue-collar-boom-workers-dont-agree/; Paul Krugman, “The Plight of the Employed,” New York Times, December 24, 2013, http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/12/24/the-plight-of-the-employed/; Paul Krugman, “The Fear Economy,” New York Times, December 26, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/27/opinion/krugman-the-fear-economy.html; Danielle Kurtzleben, “Read McDonald’s workers’ shocking harassment and discrimination complaints — and why they’re so important,” Vox, January 22, 2015, https://www.vox.com/2015/1/22/7873661/mcdonalds-lawsuit-harassment-discrimination; Edward McClelland, “You call this a middle class? “I’m trying not to lose my house,’” Salon, March 1, 2014, https://www.salon.com/test/2014/03/01/you_call_this_a_middle_class_i%E2%80%99m_trying_not_to_lose_my_house/; Mac McClelland, “I Was a Warehouse Wage Slave,” Mother Jones, March/April 2012, https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2012/02/mac-mcclelland-free-online-shipping-warehouses-labor/; Nathaniel Mott, “From Amazon warehouse workers to Google bus drivers, it’s tough working a non-tech job at a tech company,” Pando, October 9, 2014, https://pando.com/2014/10/09/from-amazon-warehouse-workers-to-google-bus-drivers-its-tough-working-a-non-tech-job-at-a-tech-company/; Marc Pilisuk with Jennifer Achord Rountree, Who Benefits From Global Violence and War (Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2008).; Ari Rabin-Havt, “Wal-Mart flunks its fact-check: The truth behind its sarcastic response to the Times,” Salon, June 25, 2014, https://www.salon.com/control/2014/06/25/walmart_flunks_its_fact_check_the_truth_behind_its_sarcastic_response_to_the_times/; Michael Sainato, “‘I’m not a robot’: Amazon workers condemn unsafe, grueling conditions at warehouse,” Guardian, February 5, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2020/feb/05/amazon-workers-protest-unsafe-grueling-conditions-warehouse; Alex Seitz-Wald, “Amazon is everything wrong with our new economy,” Salon, July 30, 2013, https://www.salon.com/test/2013/07/30/amazon_is_everything_wrong_with_our_new_economy/; Alana Semuels, “As employers push efficiency, the daily grind wears down workers,” Los Angeles Times, April 7, 2013, https://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-harsh-work-20130407-story.html; Alana Semuels, “How the relationship between employers and workers changed,” Los Angeles Times, April 7, 2013, https://www.latimes.com/business/la-xpm-2013-apr-07-la-fi-mo-harsh-work-history-20130405-story.html; Alana Semuels, “Tougher workplace makes home life worse too,” Los Angeles Times, April 7, 2013, https://www.latimes.com/business/la-xpm-2013-apr-07-la-fi-mo-harsh-work-history-20130405-story.html; Spencer Soper, “Inside Amazon’s Warehouse,” Lehigh Valley Morning Call, September 18, 2011, https://www.mcall.com/business/mc-xpm-2011-09-18-mc-allentown-amazon-complaints-20110917-story.html; Scott Sernau, Worlds Apart: Social Inequalities in a Global Economy, 2nd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge, 2006); Lindsay Wise, “Report: Temp jobs at all-time high in U.S.,” McClatchy, September 2, 2014, https://www.mcclatchydc.com/news/nation-world/national/economy/article24772543.html
  11. [11]International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, December 16, 1966, United Nations, General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI), https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cescr.aspx
  12. [12]Consider, for example, one interview I had for a faculty position. They asked me, a Ph.D., the very same questions you’d ask a janitor. And none other. As they went through the questions, the hiring committee even broke into laughter, the questions were so patently ridiculous.
  13. [13]Susan Chenery, “Poverty and ageing: ‘we’re swept under the carpet and pushed aside,’” Guardian, April 24, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2019/apr/25/poverty-and-ageing-were-swept-under-the-carpet-and-pushed-aside; Patricia Cohen, “Lots of Job Hunting, but No Job, Despite Low Unemployment Lots of Job Hunting, but No Job, Despite Low Unemployment,” New York Times, November 1, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/31/business/economy/long-term-unemployed.html; Carol Hymowitz, “Older Workers Have a Big Secret: Their Age,” Wall Street Journal, November 17, 2019, https://www.wsj.com/articles/older-workers-have-a-big-secret-their-age-11574046301; Bhaskar Sunkara, “Why it’s time to ditch the ‘ok boomer’ meme,” Guardian, November 6, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/nov/06/ok-boomer-meme-older-generations
  14. [14]David Benfell, “Radicalism and pragmatism,” Not Housebroken, July 19, 2019, https://disunitedstates.org/2019/07/19/radicalism-and-pragmatism/
  15. [15]John Asimakopoulos, The Political Economy of the Spectacle and Postmodern Cast (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2020)
  16. [16]David Benfell, “Time for the gig economy to grow up,” Not Housebroken, August 30, 2019, https://disunitedstates.org/2019/08/30/time-for-the-gig-economy-to-grow-up/; David Benfell, “The expendable worker,” Not Housebroken, July 5, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2020/07/05/the-expendable-worker/; Lia Russell, “The Silicon Valley Economy Is Here. And It’s a Nightmare,” New Republic, January 16, 2020, https://newrepublic.com/article/156202/silicon-valley-economy-here-its-nightmare
  17. [17]Actually, at various points, I have sought even these positions. Again, and as always, my applications end up in the bit bucket.
  18. [18]Daniel D’Addario, “Amazon is worse than Walmart,” Salon, July 30, 2013, https://www.salon.com/control/2013/07/30/how_amazon_is_worse_than_wal_mart/; Timothy Egan, “The Corporate Daddy,” New York Times, June 19, 2014, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/20/opinion/timothy-egan-walmart-starbucks-and-the-fight-against-inequality.html; Barbara Ehrenreich, Nickel and Dimed (New York: Owl, 2001); Josh Eidelson, “Wal-Mart faces warehouse horror allegations and federal Labor Board complaint,” Salon, November 19, 2013, https://www.salon.com/test/2013/11/18/breaking_wal_mart_faces_warehouse_horror_allegations_and_federal_labor_board_complaint/; Josh Eidelson, “Tens of thousands protest, over 100 arrested in Black Friday challenge to Wal-Mart,” Salon, November 30, 2013, https://www.salon.com/test/2013/11/30/tens_of_thousands_protest_over_100_arrested_in_black_friday_challenge_to_wal_mart/; Josh Eidelson, “Finally paying for Wal-Mart’s sins: Wage theft settlement yields millions,” Salon, December 16, 2013, https://www.salon.com/test/2013/12/16/finally_paying_for_wal_marts_sins_wage_theft_settlement_yields_millions/; Josh Eidelson, “Freezing for Wal-Mart: Sub-zero warehouse temperatures spur Indiana work stoppage,” Salon, January 14, 2014, https://www.salon.com/test/2014/01/13/freezing_for_wal_mart_sub_zero_warehouse_temperatures_spur_indiana_work_stoppage/; Josh Eidelson, “Amazon Keeps Unions Out By Keeping Workers in Fear, Says Organizer,” Alternet, January 22, 2014, https://www.alternet.org/2014/01/amazon-keeps-unions-out-keeping-workers-fear-says-organizer/; Nichole Gracely, “‘Being homeless is better than working for Amazon,’” Guardian, November 28, 2014, https://www.theguardian.com/money/2014/nov/28/being-homeless-is-better-than-working-for-amazon; Steven Greenhouse, “The Changing Face of Temporary Employment,” New York Times, August 31, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/01/upshot/the-changing-face-of-temporary-employment.html; Erin Hatton, “The Rise of the Permanent Temp Economy,” New York Times, January 26, 2013, http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/01/26/the-rise-of-the-permanent-temp-economy/; Simon Head, “Worse than Wal-Mart: Amazon’s sick brutality and secret history of ruthlessly intimidating workers,” Salon, February 23, 2014, https://www.salon.com/control/2014/02/23/worse_than_wal_mart_amazons_sick_brutality_and_secret_history_of_ruthlessly_intimidating_workers/; Paul Jaskunas, “The Tyranny of the Forced Smile,” New York Times, February 14, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/15/jobs/the-tyranny-of-the-forced-smile.html; Allison Kilkenny, “Ohio Walmart Holds Food Drive For Its Own Employees,” Nation, November 18, 2013, https://www.thenation.com/article/ohio-walmart-holds-food-drive-its-own-employees/; Molly Kinder, “Trump’s State of the Union declared we’re in a ‘blue-collar boom.’ Workers don’t agree,” Brookings, February 6, 2020, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2020/02/05/trumps-state-of-the-union-declared-were-in-a-blue-collar-boom-workers-dont-agree/; Paul Krugman, “The Plight of the Employed,” New York Times, December 24, 2013, http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/12/24/the-plight-of-the-employed/; Paul Krugman, “The Fear Economy,” New York Times, December 26, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/27/opinion/krugman-the-fear-economy.html; Danielle Kurtzleben, “Read McDonald’s workers’ shocking harassment and discrimination complaints — and why they’re so important,” Vox, January 22, 2015, https://www.vox.com/2015/1/22/7873661/mcdonalds-lawsuit-harassment-discrimination; Edward McClelland, “You call this a middle class? “I’m trying not to lose my house,’” Salon, March 1, 2014, https://www.salon.com/test/2014/03/01/you_call_this_a_middle_class_i%E2%80%99m_trying_not_to_lose_my_house/; Mac McClelland, “I Was a Warehouse Wage Slave,” Mother Jones, March/April 2012, https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2012/02/mac-mcclelland-free-online-shipping-warehouses-labor/; Nathaniel Mott, “From Amazon warehouse workers to Google bus drivers, it’s tough working a non-tech job at a tech company,” Pando, October 9, 2014, https://pando.com/2014/10/09/from-amazon-warehouse-workers-to-google-bus-drivers-its-tough-working-a-non-tech-job-at-a-tech-company/; Marc Pilisuk with Jennifer Achord Rountree, Who Benefits From Global Violence and War (Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2008).; Ari Rabin-Havt, “Wal-Mart flunks its fact-check: The truth behind its sarcastic response to the Times,” Salon, June 25, 2014, https://www.salon.com/control/2014/06/25/walmart_flunks_its_fact_check_the_truth_behind_its_sarcastic_response_to_the_times/; Michael Sainato, “‘I’m not a robot’: Amazon workers condemn unsafe, grueling conditions at warehouse,” Guardian, February 5, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2020/feb/05/amazon-workers-protest-unsafe-grueling-conditions-warehouse; Alex Seitz-Wald, “Amazon is everything wrong with our new economy,” Salon, July 30, 2013, https://www.salon.com/test/2013/07/30/amazon_is_everything_wrong_with_our_new_economy/; Alana Semuels, “As employers push efficiency, the daily grind wears down workers,” Los Angeles Times, April 7, 2013, https://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-harsh-work-20130407-story.html; Alana Semuels, “How the relationship between employers and workers changed,” Los Angeles Times, April 7, 2013, https://www.latimes.com/business/la-xpm-2013-apr-07-la-fi-mo-harsh-work-history-20130405-story.html; Alana Semuels, “Tougher workplace makes home life worse too,” Los Angeles Times, April 7, 2013, https://www.latimes.com/business/la-xpm-2013-apr-07-la-fi-mo-harsh-work-history-20130405-story.html; Spencer Soper, “Inside Amazon’s Warehouse,” Lehigh Valley Morning Call, September 18, 2011, https://www.mcall.com/business/mc-xpm-2011-09-18-mc-allentown-amazon-complaints-20110917-story.html; Scott Sernau, Worlds Apart: Social Inequalities in a Global Economy, 2nd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge, 2006); Lindsay Wise, “Report: Temp jobs at all-time high in U.S.,” McClatchy, September 2, 2014, https://www.mcclatchydc.com/news/nation-world/national/economy/article24772543.html
  19. [19]United Nations, “Ratification Status: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,” January 15, 2019, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-3&chapter=4&lang=en
  20. [20]U.S. Const. amend. IX.
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  25. [25]Even scholars who are affiliated with non-elite institutions encounter extreme difficulty securing grants: Jeffrey Herlihy-Mera, “How Elitism Marginalizes Academics,” Chronicle of Higher Education, December 5, 2019, https://www.chronicle.com/interactives/20191204-Herlihy-Mera
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  36. [36]Hillary Clinton, who could not be opposed for U.S. president in 2016 for her warmongering or neoliberalism, but only because she is a woman, comes to mind. Then there’s Tom Perkins, “Progressive Kristallnacht Coming?” Wall Street Journal, January 24, 2014, https://www.wsj.com/articles/progressive-kristallnacht-coming-1390600169
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