About my job hunt

Fig. 1. Cartoon created with the New Yorker‘s “Create your own cartoon” tool. #DIYNewYorker

To develop this page has been exceedingly difficult. The task is to channel an incandescent rage into coherence. It is undated as I continue to develop it.

Futility

I have been desperately seeking gainful employment, which I define as conforming to the conditions of article seven in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR),[1] since the dot-com crash in 2001. I have done everything everybody says to do. I have put myself on job boards, applied for countless positions, networked, sought informational interviews, had my résumé professionally written, returned to school, finished a bachelor’s degree, a master’s degree, and a Ph.D.

Four things are crystal clear at this point in my job hunt:

  1. On those exceedingly rare occasions I even get an interview, it is so hiring managers or committees can claim to have interviewed somebody besides their pre-selected candidate.[2] I am not interested in participating in any more such charades.

  2. When recruiters contact me, it is through an email blast based on some very old job board listing—I’ve been on every one that I could find at one point or another—that I don’t even know how to find anymore. Such contacts are insincere. These recruiters are a dime a dozen but, naturally, get away with charging a lot more. They substitute a quantity of applicants for quality and the hiring managers who rely on these recruiters could save themselves a small fortune by going to the job boards themselves. But of course they’re the smart ones.

  3. The only genuine recruiting occurs through and the only way one really finds work is through real life—not virtual—social networks. I’m on LinkedIn and I’ve been on every other pretender out there that I could find. I hear that some people actually do find work this way. I’ve yet to meet anyone who actually has.

  4. There are very few genuine friends in this world. The folks who are pulling down six-figure (or more) incomes and still plead that they cannot help me and that they have never had an opportunity to help me in all these years (it’s been since 2001) blatantly and transparently insult me with their flatulence.

Through all of it, I receive zero useful feedback that would enable me to see how to, if it is even possible, adjust what I am doing. I have occasionally received critiques of my professionally-written résumé from other companies that want money to professionally write my résumé—when it seems quite apparent that the money I spent having my résumé professionally written in the first place was entirely wasted. These critiques have failed to adequately address my situation and are therefore even less compelling than that offered by my first professional résumé writer.

Discrimination

At some point, I am forced to a realization that this isn’t about me or my failings anymore, that I have done everything that can be done, and that nothing I do makes any difference: I am being systematically excluded from the job market and I need a job hunt process that works for me. The standard bullshit doesn’t work, I am beyond fed up with it, and stunningly, it has been all anyone could tell me to do.

My Ph.D. is in Human Science and I have a lot to offer but what I find is a system that seeks any excuse it can find to not even consider me, whether it be my age, an uneven employment history (I’ve been struggling to find work for a long time), my miserably failed attempt to change careers, my poverty[3] (expressed as a credit rating, which is not helped by my student loan debt), or my (not really[4]) radicalism,[5] and who knows what all else.

Thus, I am reduced to driving for Uber and Lyft, companies which are notorious for their abuse of drivers.[6] I am desperate for a position that recognizes who I am and what I have accomplished. I see no path to attain it. And so I am caught in an infuriating and vicious cycle: I need to do something. I see nothing I can do.

A matter of human rights

If I am human, I have the rights in the ICESCR, if not through explicit ratification—the U.S. is one of only four countries in the world not to recognize this treaty[7]—then through unenumerated rights in the U.S. Constitution,[8] and I am utterly baffled as to how it is that any of article seven of the ICESCR should be even remotely controversial:

The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of just and favourable conditions of work which ensure, in particular:

    (a) Remuneration which provides all workers, as a minimum, with:

      (i) Fair wages and equal remuneration for work of equal value without distinction of any kind, in particular women being guaranteed conditions of work not inferior to those enjoyed by men, with equal pay for equal work;

      (ii) A decent living for themselves and their families in accordance with the provisions of the present Covenant;

    (b) Safe and healthy working conditions;

    (c) Equal opportunity for everyone to be promoted in his employment to an appropriate higher level, subject to no considerations other than those of seniority and competence;

    (d ) Rest, leisure and reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay, as well as remuneration for public holidays[9]

Even with a Ph.D., I am denied these rights and reduced to a subhuman condition. So of course I am furious.

Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible.[10]

I bear an insult implicit in the notion that I am somehow not worth what it costs to live, that I am somehow not worthy of human rights[11] recognized almost anywhere else in the world except in the United States,[12] and thus in effect that I am not human, but subhuman.

So to some degree, this page is a “fuck you.” Fuck you to all the assholes who have denied my humanity, denied my dignity. I hold you in utter contempt. I wish you a suffering ten times greater than my own for your malevolence.

What I am not

  1. I am not really a radical:

  2. I am clearly not a marketer or salesperson of any kind. If I were, I would have managed to sell my way into a job by now. My experience is quite the opposite: If I have to market something, it is doomed. This also means that any attempt I make at entrepreneurship is similarly doomed—this requires sales ability and my Ph.D. is sufficiently amorphous that it is unclear what, exactly, I would be “selling.” It also means I can’t just write a book: Yes, I can write the book, but authors are now required to market their work and I can’t do that. Finally, it means I cannot successfully seek grants to pay for scholarly work.[13]

  3. I am not really a high technology person:

  4. I am not impressed with big data (mining) or artificial intelligence idiocy:

  5. I also will not be involved in anything unethical (see my ethics page). That means, at least in part:

    • No deception of any kind. Deception includes both lying and the withholding of relevant information. It undermines personal autonomy.[14] I understand this to include all forms of sales and marketing, public relations, and propaganda. It also includes any support or tolerance for neoliberalism, which persists ideologically,[15] despite being utterly discredited intellectually.[16] In general, I will not subscribe to, nor will I support, any epistemological theory[17] in which a claim held to be true either merely because wealthy or powerful people say it is true or merely because it protects or benefits such people.[18]

    • Research or inquiry must protect participants and ensure that they benefit as well. This includes fairness, informed consent, voluntary participation, confidentiality, and anonymization. I will respect both individual and group rights.[19]

    • I oppose structural (denying important rights, such as to adequate food, shelter, health care, and self-actualization[20]) and physical violence against human and non-human animals[21]:

      • I reject the neoliberal devaluation, particularization, and essentialization of human beings as economic units of production compelled to compete with other human beings on conditions (such as the cost of living, environmental regulation, and labor regulation) over which they have little or no control. I will seek to undermine employers who revel in their freedom to abuse commodified human or non-human beings. Such abuse includes low pay, poor working conditions, and the exploitation of non-human animals.

      • Max Weber saw capitalism—but his point applies to any market system of exchange—as inherently privileging whomever has the greater power to say no, that is, the rich. The benefits and handicaps that follow from each act of exchange, each transaction, are cumulative; hence, economic systems of exchange inherently function to widen social inequality:[22]

        I have personal experience with these effects. I abhor them. I will seek to undermine this ideology at every opportunity.

    • I am not tolerant of bigots, whether they be wealthy and powerful[23] or members of any subaltern group, who insist or imply that their particular grievance is the only injustice that needs attending to or that their grievance is somehow more pressing than anyone else’s.[24] Bigotry deploys difference as a wedge between us and is incompatible with the building or sustenance of an inclusive movement:

      In general, I see justice as requiring that we address all subaltern group grievances pretty much simultaneously; it isn’t justice for all otherwise and the settlement that must be reached requires that all our interests be taken into account. So I think the idea that some groups deserve a higher priority than others cannot work, even if it were somehow fair to treat them that way.

      That said, I am aghast at the racism I am seeing in Pittsburgh, which I see combining with gun nuttery and a fetishization of combat to strongly suggest the possibility of white supremacist militia groups in the area:

      I feel powerless to do anything about it and this situation has me reconsidering my choice to live in Pittsburgh.

    • I am also not impressed when people, usually from other subaltern groups, object to what I say, not on its merits, but because I, a white male, presumed to be privileged, have said it. There is most definitely an issue when privileged people claim to speak on behalf of subaltern groups,[25] but this amounts to a denial of my subaltern status and is an example both of how too many people view “privilege” as a binary rather than in a context of kyriarchy (see above) and of how subaltern groups among the Left have come to other others, especially white males, rather than building or sustaining an inclusive movement.[26]

      I will not be an “ally” when that means to sit down and shut up or “mind my lane.”

      I will be an ally when that means that we walk together, talk together, and jointly work together to address all our grievances.

    • Having suffered both structural and physical violence in my life,[27] I will act to affirm the development of human and non-human animals to their capabilities.[28]

I need to live but I also need to be able to live with myself. Surely, there should be a place for someone like me but, after so many years of failure, I am not clear even on what jobs I should be seeking.

What I should be

I suppose most people might be tempted to skip over the acknowledgments frequently found in the front matter of books. I tend to pause for them, perhaps unintentionally, perhaps out of excessive curiosity, to gain a better sense of the authors. I recently found this, from one more fortunate than myself:

Although I am not a gambler, I also thank Lady Luck for being employed as a tenured professor, which makes my academic production possible. It might have been otherwise. Countless potential discoveries, innovations, and advancements are never made because most faculty and intellectuals have been discarded, living as coffee baristas and wait staff versus the alternative of a homeless existence in a McDonaldized contingent academia.[29]

The presumption that attends a Ph.D., a research degree accrediting its bearer as a “producer” of knowledge, is that I should be in academia, conducting research/inquiry, teaching classes. Alas, under neoliberalism this has become considerably more difficult. As I wrote earlier on a page that is now off line,

Unfortunately, under neoliberalism, higher education has largely gone the other way [from preparation for the responsibilities of citizenship]: We layer quantitative metrics on top of quantitative metrics in the name of “accountability;” we see the word “entrepreneurship,” a word that should never be used in the context of education, emblazoned across Ivy League university web sites as they promote their job training programs; academic departments retreat from funding cuts by reinforcing the high walls around their intellectual silos; positivism (or post-positivism, if you insist) ascends not on its own merit but in an emphasis on a naïve view of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); all while low-paid adjuncts enable ever richer university administrations. As Christian Smith puts it, “[t]he manure has piled up so deep in the hallways, classrooms, and administration buildings . . . that,” he writes, “I am not sure how much longer I can wade through it and retain my sanity and integrity.” Smith and I share an ideal of what the university is supposed to be. He laments “our crisis of faith in truth, reality, reason, evidence, argument, civility, and our common humanity.”[30] But given a choice he has and I seem not to, (I’m pretty sure he and) I would be nowhere else.

In 2015, Saybrook University began “teaching out” (closing down) its Human Science program. I completed the program later that year, formally graduating early the next. But with the toll austerity is taking on academia,[31] the siloization of the social sciences, and the apparent absence of any other human science program in academia, there is little to no opportunity for a transdisciplinary (or, as I prefer it, post-disciplinary) scholar such as myself to find even an adjunct position.

And if indeed I am wasting my time applying for such positions, then it is not only my time I am wasting, but that of those (my dissertation committee) who so generously write very nice reference letters on my behalf.[32] The truth is I can’t tell whether or not my application in academia will be taken seriously. What I do know is that whether it would land me a tenure track or other position or, as historically seems most likely, it would end up in the bit bucket, the reference letters are a required part of that application. How many such letters can I ask for? How many should I ask for? My professors helped me to something irreplaceable; they deserve far better than this abuse from me.

It might help if I had published more than my dissertation, but scholarly work takes time, resources, and the marketing ability to write a successful grant proposal. I am poor. I need funding I can’t get. In this way, academia excludes me. That this is the case crushes me.

What I am

I am highly educated, a critical theorist,[33] a vegetarian ecofeminist (vegan and anarchist),[34] a systems theorist,[35] a qualitative researcher,[36] and a writer. My Ph.D. is in Human Science. My dissertation critically examined conservative attitudes on unauthorized migration.[37] I have survived (barely) on the underbelly of capitalism for decades and am not a fan: I see both economic and political authority as extremely problematic. I care a great deal about the environment and about social, economic, and environmental justice. And politically, it has to be said that over a period spanning decades, I’ve heard a lot of promises—a lot of hot air and a lot of crocodile tears—from politicians, especially neoliberal politicians, about jobs.[38] I’ve heard that bullshit and I’ve heard that bullshit. And for all of it, I still don’t have a job. I’m not interested in promises. I want a real job. Now.


(contact information; I am on a lease in the area of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)

Education:

  • Ph.D., Human Science, January 2016, Saybrook University, San Francisco
  • M.A., Speech Communication, June 2009, California State University, East Bay, Hayward
  • B.A., Mass Communication, Dec. 2005, California State University, East Bay, Hayward
  • A.A., Business Data Processing, 1979, American River College, Sacramento

Writing and Teaching: I am a capable writer and college-level teacher with a focus on making difficult information easy to understand:

  • California State University, East Bay, 25800 Carlos Bee Blvd., Hayward, CA 94542 (June 2007 – June 2009) Taught public speaking classes, which included assigning, reviewing and grading student essays. Supervised tutors in the communication lab from April 2007 – June 2008.
  • Linuxcare, 650 Townsend St., Ste. 120, San Francisco, CA 94103 (Nov. 1999 – Feb. 2001) Worked as a technical writer, preparing user support materials, as well as system certification and solution validation reports.

Driver Supervision: I am an experienced driver and dispatcher and know how to work with drivers and perform back office work supporting drivers:

  • American Airport Shuttle, 120 Willow St., San Francisco, CA 94109, (October 2000 – June 2003) Worked as a dispatcher, answering phones, entering orders, assigning routes, coordinating via radio with drivers for airport shuttle service and taxi service.
  • Radio Cab, 49C Industrial Way, Greenbrae, CA 94904 (May 1994 – August 1997)

Tech literacy: My background includes computer programming and operation.

  • San Francisco General Hospital, 1001 Potrero Ave., San Francisco CA (September 1986 – December 1990) Worked graveyard shift, running nightly batch jobs. I developed new system monitoring programs, and worked with field maintenance personnel to ensure proper system operation.
  • Quinn Company, 10273 S. Golden State Hwy, Selma, CA (December 1981 – May 1985) Business applications programmer for Caterpillar Tractor. Maintained existing and developed new or replacement programs as needed.
  • Electronic Data Systems, Reno, NV(August 1980 – December 1981) Sole systems analyst/programmer on contract to U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Nevada State Office.

Driving: I have extensive experience as a driver and understand the support systems drivers need.

  • Uber, 1455 Market St #400, San Francisco, CA 94103 (Dec. 2016 – present)
  • Lyft, 185 Berry St, San Francisco, CA 94107 (Sept. 2016 – present)
  • Emerald City, 10811 Russet St., Oakland, CA 94603 (Jan. 2018 – Oct. 2018)
  • Top Shelf Medicinal, 414 Lesser, Oakland, CA 94601 (Apr. 2017 – Dec. 2017)
  • Yellow Checker Cab, 1880 S. 7th St., San Jose CA 95112 (May 2005 – September 2006)
  • North Bay Cooperative Taxi, 301 Irwin St., San Rafael CA 94901 (May 2001- November 2001)
  • Luxor Cab, 2230 Jerrold Ave., San Francisco, CA 94124 (Dec. 1997 – Dec. 1999)
  • Sausalito Cab, 3000 Bridgeway, Sausalito, CA 94965 (Aug. 1997 – Dec. 1997)
  • Radio Cab, 49C Industrial Dr., Greenbrae, CA 94904 (May 1994 – Aug. 1997)
  1. [1]International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, December 16, 1966, United Nations, General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI), https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cescr.aspx
  2. [2]Consider, for example, one interview I had for a faculty position. They asked me, a Ph.D., the very same questions you’d ask a janitor. And none other. As they went through the questions, the hiring committee even broke into laughter, the questions were so patently ridiculous.
  3. [3]Susan Chenery, “Poverty and ageing: ‘we’re swept under the carpet and pushed aside,’” Guardian, April 24, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2019/apr/25/poverty-and-ageing-were-swept-under-the-carpet-and-pushed-aside; Patricia Cohen, “Lots of Job Hunting, but No Job, Despite Low Unemployment Lots of Job Hunting, but No Job, Despite Low Unemployment,” New York Times, November 1, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/31/business/economy/long-term-unemployed.html; Carol Hymowitz, “Older Workers Have a Big Secret: Their Age,” Wall Street Journal, November 17, 2019, https://www.wsj.com/articles/older-workers-have-a-big-secret-their-age-11574046301; Bhaskar Sunkara, “Why it’s time to ditch the ‘ok boomer’ meme,” Guardian, November 6, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/nov/06/ok-boomer-meme-older-generations
  4. [4]David Benfell, “Radicalism and pragmatism,” Not Housebroken, July 19, 2019, https://disunitedstates.org/2019/07/19/radicalism-and-pragmatism/
  5. [5]John Asimakopoulos, The Political Economy of the Spectacle and Postmodern Cast (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2020)
  6. [6]David Benfell, “Time for the gig economy to grow up,” Not Housebroken, August 30, 2019, https://disunitedstates.org/2019/08/30/time-for-the-gig-economy-to-grow-up/
  7. [7]United Nations, “Ratification Status: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,” January 15, 2019, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-3&chapter=4&lang=en
  8. [8]U.S. Const. amend. IX.
  9. [9]International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, December 16, 1966, United Nations, General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI), https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cescr.aspx
  10. [10]Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, “What are Human Rights?” http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Pages/WhatareHumanRights.aspx
  11. [11]International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, December 16, 1966, United Nations, General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI), https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cescr.aspx
  12. [12]United Nations, “Ratification Status: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,” January 15, 2019, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-3&chapter=4&lang=en
  13. [13]Even scholars who are affiliated with non-elite institutions encounter extreme difficulty securing grants: Jeffrey Herlihy-Mera, “How Elitism Marginalizes Academics,” Chronicle of Higher Education, December 5, 2019, https://www.chronicle.com/interactives/20191204-Herlihy-Mera
  14. [14]Sissela Bok, Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life (New York: Vintage, 1999).
  15. [15]Jomo Kwame Sundaram and Anis Chowdhury, “Trade Liberalization for Development?” InterPress Service, November 5, 2019, http://www.ipsnews.net/2019/11/trade-liberalization-development/
  16. [16]Mark Blyth, Austerity: The History of a Dangerous Idea (Oxford, UK: Oxford University, 2013); Jason Hickel, “Progress and its discontents,” New Internationalist, August 7, 2019, https://newint.org/features/2019/07/01/long-read-progress-and-its-discontents; Daniel Stedman Jones, Masters of the Universe: Hayek, Friedman, and the Birth of Neoliberal Politics (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, 2012); Robert Kuttner, “Austerity never works: Deficit hawks are amoral — and wrong,” Salon, May 5, 2013, http://www.salon.com/2013/05/05/austerity_never_works_deficit_hawks_are_amoral_and_wrong/; Dennis Loo, Globalization and the Demolition of Society (Glendale, CA: Larkmead, 2011); Thomas Piketty, Jeffrey Sachs, Heiner Flassbeck, Dani Rodrik and Simon Wren-Lewis, “Austerity Has Failed: An Open Letter From Thomas Piketty to Angela Merkel,” Nation, July 6, 2015, http://www.thenation.com/article/austerity-has-failed-an-open-letter-from-thomas-piketty-to-angela-merkel/; John Quiggin, “Austerity Has Been Tested, and It Failed,” Chronicle of Higher Education, May 20, 2013, http://chronicle.com/article/Austerity-Has-Been-Tested-and/139255/; David Stuckler and Sanjay Basu, “How Austerity Kills,” New York Times, May 12, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/13/opinion/how-austerity-kills.html; David Stuckler and Sanjay Basu, “Paul Krugman’s right: Austerity kills,” Salon, May 19, 2013, http://www.salon.com/2013/05/19/paul_krugmans_right_austerity_kills/
  17. [17]There are numerous theories of truth. An introduction can be found in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, s.v. “Truth,” last modified August 16, 2018, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/truth/
  18. [18]Sergio Caldarella treats such theories harshly in The Dark Campus (Princeton, NJ: Dark Age, 2016). John Asimakopoulos explores the operation of such theories in The Political Economy of the Spectacle and Postmodern Caste (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2020).
  19. [19]Norman K. Denzin, Yvonna S. Lincoln, and Linda Tuhiwai Smith, eds., Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008).
  20. [20]David P. Barash and Charles P. Webel, Peace and Conflict Studies (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2002).
  21. [21]David Benfell, “Violence is the illegitimate authority that begets all other illegitimate authority,” Not Housebroken, July 1, 2019, https://disunitedstates.org/2019/07/01/violence-is-the-illegitimate-authority-that-begets-all-other-illegitimate-authority/
  22. [22]Max Weber, “Class, Status, Party,” in Social Theory: The Multicultural and Classic Readings, ed. Charles Lemert, 4th ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview, 2010), 119-129; see also David Benfell, “The fallacy of ‘free’ trade is more than a fallacy of ‘free’ trade,” Not Housebroken, June 28, 2018, https://disunitedstates.org/2018/06/28/the-fallacy-of-free-trade-is-more-than-a-fallacy-of-free-trade/; David Benfell, “They must pay,” Not Housebroken, February 21, 2019, https://disunitedstates.org/2019/02/21/they-must-pay/; David Benfell, “These disunited states,” Not Housebroken, January 9, 2020, https://disunitedstates.org/2020/01/09/these-disunited-states/
  23. [23]Hillary Clinton, who could not be opposed for U.S. president in 2016 for her warmongering or neoliberalism, but only because she is a woman, comes to mind. Then there’s Tom Perkins, “Progressive Kristallnacht Coming?” Wall Street Journal, January 24, 2014, https://www.wsj.com/articles/progressive-kristallnacht-coming-1390600169
  24. [24]Amy Chua, Political Tribes (New York: Penguin, 2018); Amy Chua, “How America’s identity politics went from inclusion to division,” Guardian, November 9, 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/society/2018/mar/01/how-americas-identity-politics-went-from-inclusion-to-division. There are numerous examples likely to be found in every subaltern group. Perhaps the most extreme would be the Blue Lives Matter movement, which asserts that police officers’ shootings of Black males should not be questioned under any circumstances; or Jews, who label any opposition to Israel’s occupation of Palestinian territories or to its policies in those territories as anti-Semitic. More prosaically, some activists seem to believe that only white males can be racist and sexist: James Rush, “Goldsmiths Students’ Union diversity officer explains she cannot be racist or sexist because she is an ethnic minority woman,” Independent, May 12, 2015, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/goldsmiths-students-union-diversity-officer-says-she-cannot-be-racist-or-sexist-to-white-men-because-she-is-an-ethnic-minority-woman-10244520.html
  25. [25]Linda Martín Alcott, “The Problem of Speaking for Others,” in Who Can Speak? Authority and Critical Identity, eds. Judith Roof and Robyn Wiegman (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, 1995), 97-119.
  26. [26]Amy Chua, Political Tribes (New York: Penguin, 2018); Amy Chua, “How America’s identity politics went from inclusion to division,” Guardian, November 9, 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/society/2018/mar/01/how-americas-identity-politics-went-from-inclusion-to-division
  27. [27]My father was physically abusive toward me and verbally abusive toward my mother. In addition, I was bullied by fellow school children and I have suffered economic deprivation and more abusive employers than not throughout nearly all of my adult life.
  28. [28]Martha C. Nussbaum, Creating Capabilities: The Human Development Approach (Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 2011).
  29. [29]John Asimakopoulos, Acknowledgements in The Political Economy of the Spectacle and Postmodern Caste (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2020).
  30. [30]Christian Smith, “Higher Education Is Drowning in BS,” Chronicle of Higher Education, January 9, 2018, https://www.chronicle.com/article/Higher-Education-Is-Drowning/242195
  31. [31]Sheila Liming, “My University is Dying,” Chronicle of Higher Education, September 25, 2019, https://www.chronicle.com/interactives/20190925-my-university-is-dying
  32. [32]Cheryl Foster, Rebecca Millsop, and Doug Reed, “The Heavy Unseen Labor of Writing Reference Letters,” Chronicle Vitae, October 14, 2019, https://chroniclevitae.com/news/2259-the-heavy-unseen-labor-of-writing-reference-letters
  33. [33]Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln, eds., Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials, 3rd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008); Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln, eds., The Landscape of Qualitative Research, 3rd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008); Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln, eds., Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, 3rd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008); Norman K. Denzin, Yvonna S. Lincoln, and Linda Tuhiwai Smith, eds., Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008); Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, 30th Anniversary Edition (New York: Continuum, 2006); Raymond A. Morrow with David D. Brown, Critical Theory and Methodology (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994).
  34. [34]Greta Gaard, “Vegetarian Ecofeminism: A Review Essay,” Frontiers 23, no. 3 (2002): 117-146.
  35. [35]Fritjof Capra, The Web of Life: A New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems (New York: Anchor, 1996); Joanna Macy, Mutual Causality in Buddhism and General Systems Theory: the Dharma of Natural Systems (Delhi, India: Sri Satguru, 1995).
  36. [36]Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln, eds., The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 4th ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2011); Norman K. Denzin, Yvonna S. Lincoln, and Linda Tuhiwai Smith, eds., Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008).
  37. [37]David Benfell, “Conservative Views on Undocumented Migration” (doctoral dissertation, Saybrook, 2016). ProQuest (1765416126).
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