UPDATED: Is this a lot of major earthquakes?

I probably over-reacted. But this table is from the United States Geological Survey from when I first wrote this:

MAG UTC DATE-TIME
y/m/d h:m:s
LAT
deg
LON
deg
DEPTH
km
Region
6.1 2010/03/04 01:59:51 -33.154 -72.064 34.4 OFFSHORE VALPARAISO, CHILE
6.4 2010/03/04 00:18:52 22.903 120.823 23.1 TAIWAN
5.1 2010/03/03 21:24:03 -38.465 -73.696 35.0 OFFSHORE ARAUCANIA, CHILE
5.6 2010/03/03 19:58:29 -33.463 -71.825 28.7 OFFSHORE VALPARAISO, CHILE
6.0 2010/03/03 17:44:25 -36.452 -73.069 19.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.0 2010/03/03 11:13:58 3.160 127.084 64.5 KEPULAUAN TALAUD, INDONESIA
5.1 2010/03/03 06:16:23 -33.620 -71.959 35.0 OFFSHORE VALPARAISO, CHILE
5.1 2010/03/03 04:36:00 -37.527 -73.773 30.2 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.4 2010/03/03 01:51:21 -34.966 -72.671 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
5.2 2010/03/02 22:18:42 3.528 126.917 67.4 KEPULAUAN TALAUD, INDONESIA
5.2 2010/03/02 21:56:43 -30.212 -68.909 33.7 SAN JUAN, ARGENTINA
5.1 2010/03/02 19:12:56 -34.253 -72.112 41.3 OFFSHORE LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.0 2010/03/02 17:57:02 -33.841 -72.123 26.8 OFFSHORE VALPARAISO, CHILE
5.2 2010/03/02 12:16:36 -36.451 -73.277 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.0 2010/03/02 11:42:36 -35.072 -72.000 35.0 MAULE, CHILE
5.3 2010/03/02 11:30:32 -35.203 -72.638 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
5.3 2010/03/02 10:42:24 -10.411 166.244 232.3 SANTA CRUZ ISLANDS
5.1 2010/03/02 09:44:57 -34.062 -73.263 35.0 OFF COAST OF LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.1 2010/03/02 08:21:44 26.092 128.318 27.3 RYUKYU ISLANDS, JAPAN
5.5 2010/03/02 06:10:54 -34.454 -72.471 35.0 OFFSHORE LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.1 2010/03/02 04:28:46 -36.666 -73.372 39.2 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.1 2010/03/02 04:09:29 -35.884 -73.502 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.0 2010/03/02 03:48:37 -33.774 -71.669 26.0 VALPARAISO, CHILE
5.0 2010/03/02 03:44:58 -34.473 -72.625 27.2 OFFSHORE LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.8 2010/03/02 02:51:24 18.238 122.487 29.6 LUZON, PHILIPPINES
5.3 2010/03/02 02:09:35 -39.797 -71.242 18.5 NEUQUEN, ARGENTINA
5.0 2010/03/02 01:55:39 42.542 75.584 17.4 KYRGYZSTAN
5.0 2010/03/01 21:51:03 -33.762 -71.201 48.4 REGION METROPOLITANA, CHILE
5.0 2010/03/01 17:23:33 -34.795 -73.924 19.2 OFF COAST OF LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.2 2010/03/01 16:56:50 -36.305 -72.479 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.3 2010/03/01 14:36:30 -34.359 -73.432 30.1 OFF COAST OF LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.3 2010/03/01 12:27:16 -34.216 -71.821 35.0 LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.2 2010/03/01 12:20:19 -34.513 -73.636 35.0 OFF COAST OF LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.3 2010/03/01 08:58:34 -37.701 -74.390 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.3 2010/03/01 07:49:08 -34.997 -72.861 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
5.0 2010/03/01 06:24:59 32.347 105.178 36.2 SICHUAN-GANSU BORDER REGION, CHINA
5.1 2010/03/01 06:16:12 -37.581 -74.531 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.2 2010/03/01 05:30:36 -34.451 -73.481 35.0 OFF COAST OF LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.0 2010/03/01 03:53:16 -38.638 -73.122 35.0 ARAUCANIA, CHILE
5.2 2010/03/01 03:15:58 25.995 128.363 19.9 RYUKYU ISLANDS, JAPAN
5.2 2010/03/01 03:15:51 7.144 126.423 7.2 MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES
5.1 2010/03/01 03:07:51 -36.125 -72.796 40.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.8 2010/03/01 02:44:43 -35.095 -72.608 26.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
5.4 2010/03/01 01:10:58 -35.163 -71.704 42.6 MAULE, CHILE
5.0 2010/03/01 00:01:27 -38.306 -73.746 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/28 23:49:05 -37.355 -72.952 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/28 23:45:06 -35.275 -72.257 34.9 MAULE, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/28 22:41:29 -36.840 -73.528 26.5 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/28 22:07:48 39.508 140.426 124.4 EASTERN HONSHU, JAPAN
5.9 2010/02/28 19:48:39 -38.054 -73.525 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/28 18:44:31 -36.630 -72.506 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/28 18:19:53 -34.845 -71.605 35.0 LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.4 2010/02/28 16:13:49 -58.242 -8.005 35.0 EAST OF THE SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS
5.2 2010/02/28 15:46:25 -35.330 -72.165 28.7 MAULE, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/28 15:26:55 -35.085 -72.061 29.6 MAULE, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/28 14:55:25 -33.880 -73.286 32.7 OFF THE COAST OF VALPARAISO, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/28 14:50:33 -33.844 -73.191 26.0 OFF THE COAST OF VALPARAISO, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/28 13:47:06 -35.328 -72.918 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/28 12:18:59 -38.129 -73.341 26.5 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/28 12:13:27 2.146 98.906 51.3 NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA
5.0 2010/02/28 12:01:15 -35.809 -72.786 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/28 11:50:36 -35.067 -72.730 20.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
6.2 2010/02/28 11:25:36 -34.864 -71.571 46.0 LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/28 11:14:27 -35.324 -72.655 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/28 10:43:11 -38.408 -75.219 35.0 OFF THE COAST OF ARAUCANIA, CHILE
5.3 2010/02/28 10:26:53 -1.110 -80.310 40.8 NEAR THE COAST OF ECUADOR
5.0 2010/02/28 10:11:07 -33.910 -72.030 35.0 OFFSHORE LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/28 09:14:54 -33.593 -71.765 35.0 OFFSHORE VALPARAISO, CHILE
5.6 2010/02/28 08:17:45 34.867 141.444 10.0 OFF THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN
5.0 2010/02/28 08:07:46 -35.182 -72.517 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/28 07:36:30 -37.763 -73.141 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/28 07:14:21 -38.345 -73.514 35.0 OFFSHORE ARAUCANIA, CHILE
5.3 2010/02/28 05:19:35 -37.705 -73.412 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.3 2010/02/28 05:13:59 -37.458 -73.014 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/28 05:04:06 -35.232 -71.214 35.0 MAULE, CHILE
5.3 2010/02/28 04:55:49 -33.925 -71.945 35.0 OFFSHORE LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/28 04:29:12 -34.905 -69.631 35.0 MENDOZA, ARGENTINA
5.0 2010/02/28 04:17:52 -34.723 -72.183 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/28 03:33:50 25.952 128.385 35.0 RYUKYU ISLANDS, JAPAN
5.2 2010/02/28 03:23:49 -37.681 -73.533 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/28 03:14:12 -33.959 -73.195 35.0 OFF THE COAST OF VALPARAISO, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/28 02:51:47 25.994 128.394 35.0 RYUKYU ISLANDS, JAPAN
5.1 2010/02/28 02:41:10 -38.054 -73.213 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.4 2010/02/28 02:38:32 -38.243 -73.672 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/28 02:04:29 -34.610 -73.532 35.0 OFF COAST OF LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/28 01:58:50 -34.876 -72.646 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/28 01:45:29 -34.436 -73.728 35.0 OFF COAST OF LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.3 2010/02/28 01:33:12 -36.600 -72.771 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.3 2010/02/28 01:20:35 25.973 128.353 35.0 RYUKYU ISLANDS, JAPAN
5.5 2010/02/28 01:08:24 -34.113 -71.947 35.0 LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.3 2010/02/28 01:01:12 -36.791 -73.352 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/28 00:53:34 -37.949 -73.659 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.3 2010/02/28 00:00:49 -36.573 -73.279 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/27 23:35:15 -33.867 -72.226 34.8 OFFSHORE LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.7 2010/02/27 23:21:13 35.912 70.051 104.9 HINDU KUSH REGION, AFGHANISTAN
5.8 2010/02/27 23:12:35 -34.741 -71.864 35.0 LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.8 2010/02/27 23:02:01 -37.755 -72.713 35.2 ARAUCANIA, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/27 22:22:33 -34.072 -71.308 35.0 REGION METROPOLITANA, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/27 22:20:04 -35.094 -72.712 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/27 22:16:15 -36.491 -73.380 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/27 22:13:52 -34.437 -72.531 35.0 OFFSHORE LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/27 21:59:08 -36.794 -73.311 34.8 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/27 21:48:26 -33.968 -72.140 28.6 OFFSHORE LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/27 21:43:11 -35.131 -72.450 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/27 21:00:37 -33.855 -73.028 35.0 OFF THE COAST OF VALPARAISO, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/27 20:44:34 -37.893 -73.423 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/27 20:37:41 -37.532 -73.580 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/27 20:29:23 -34.689 -73.621 35.0 OFF COAST OF LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.4 2010/02/27 19:54:30 10.896 -43.442 10.0 NORTHERN MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE
5.0 2010/02/27 19:46:10 -36.090 -73.332 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/27 19:06:18 -37.473 -73.502 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
6.3 2010/02/27 19:00:08 -33.425 -71.909 34.8 OFFSHORE VALPARAISO, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/27 18:41:51 -37.581 -73.501 34.9 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.3 2010/02/27 18:23:12 -37.618 -73.818 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.6 2010/02/27 18:15:23 -37.527 -73.696 20.8 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/27 18:12:51 -33.856 -71.754 35.0 VALPARAISO, CHILE
5.3 2010/02/27 17:56:53 -34.688 -71.571 35.0 LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.5 2010/02/27 17:43:37 -36.453 -72.978 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/27 17:40:10 -33.357 -71.918 4.2 OFFSHORE VALPARAISO, CHILE
6.0 2010/02/27 17:24:31 -36.318 -73.156 19.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.5 2010/02/27 17:11:49 -33.953 -71.796 35.0 LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/27 16:50:20 -34.162 -72.010 35.0 LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.5 2010/02/27 16:37:34 -37.509 -73.605 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/27 16:32:21 -34.986 -72.356 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
5.5 2010/02/27 16:27:58 -37.820 -73.404 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.5 2010/02/27 16:21:14 -38.266 -73.434 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
6.3 2010/02/27 15:45:36 -24.674 -65.403 9.5 SALTA, ARGENTINA
5.1 2010/02/27 15:23:06 -34.528 -74.987 35.0 OFF COAST OF LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/27 15:09:08 -33.890 -71.268 35.0 REGION METROPOLITANA, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/27 14:41:51 -35.678 -72.521 35.0 MAULE, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/27 14:23:28 -34.505 -72.596 35.0 OFFSHORE LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/27 14:20:00 -37.274 -73.062 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/27 14:06:47 -37.288 -72.835 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/27 13:54:04 -33.269 -71.834 35.0 OFFSHORE VALPARAISO, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/27 13:12:52 -35.014 -71.660 35.0 MAULE, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/27 13:07:42 -38.436 -73.254 35.0 ARAUCANIA, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/27 12:58:33 -33.443 -70.944 35.0 REGION METROPOLITANA, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/27 12:46:19 -37.699 -73.681 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/27 12:44:50 -36.999 -73.038 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/27 12:23:06 -36.253 -72.266 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/27 12:19:51 25.979 128.434 9.9 RYUKYU ISLANDS, JAPAN
5.5 2010/02/27 12:03:27 -34.399 -73.825 35.0 OFF COAST OF LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.4 2010/02/27 11:45:03 -36.318 -73.216 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.3 2010/02/27 11:27:00 -38.103 -73.587 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.4 2010/02/27 10:54:24 -36.828 -73.336 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.9 2010/02/27 10:38:36 -38.019 -73.575 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
6.0 2010/02/27 10:30:33 -33.969 -72.879 35.0 OFFSHORE LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.6 2010/02/27 10:10:15 -33.701 -72.184 35.0 OFFSHORE VALPARAISO, CHILE
5.8 2010/02/27 09:59:21 -37.991 -73.467 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/27 09:21:26 -36.609 -73.218 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.6 2010/02/27 09:00:18 -33.425 -71.625 35.0 VALPARAISO, CHILE
5.3 2010/02/27 08:53:57 -34.447 -73.397 35.0 OFF COAST OF LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE
5.0 2010/02/27 08:53:27 -35.073 -71.760 35.0 MAULE, CHILE
5.6 2010/02/27 08:48:05 -38.584 -75.257 35.0 OFF THE COAST OF ARAUCANIA, CHILE
5.7 2010/02/27 08:31:05 -34.820 -72.443 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
6.1 2010/02/27 08:25:30 -34.750 -72.394 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
5.5 2010/02/27 08:19:24 -33.479 -71.574 35.0 VALPARAISO, CHILE
5.6 2010/02/27 08:13:16 -33.062 -71.702 35.0 OFFSHORE VALPARAISO, CHILE
6.9 2010/02/27 08:01:24 -37.654 -75.199 39.0 OFF THE COAST OF BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.4 2010/02/27 07:59:56 -36.050 -73.562 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.2 2010/02/27 07:56:37 -36.933 -73.240 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.4 2010/02/27 07:51:06 -36.399 -72.498 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.4 2010/02/27 07:46:50 -36.795 -72.924 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
6.0 2010/02/27 07:37:18 -36.837 -72.541 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.6 2010/02/27 07:33:31 -38.007 -73.484 35.7 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE
5.4 2010/02/27 07:19:49 -35.811 -72.945 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
6.0 2010/02/27 07:12:29 -33.807 -71.913 35.0 OFFSHORE VALPARAISO, CHILE
6.2 2010/02/27 06:52:35 -34.735 -72.638 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
8.8 2010/02/27 06:34:15 -35.846 -72.719 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
5.1 2010/02/27 00:48:46 25.989 128.510 32.8 RYUKYU ISLANDS, JAPAN
7.0 2010/02/26 20:31:27 25.902 128.417 22.0 RYUKYU ISLANDS, JAPAN
5.1 2010/02/26 16:18:57 5.842 125.792 53.7 MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES
5.7 2010/02/26 08:37:03 6.394 126.805 117.3 MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES
5.4 2010/02/26 04:42:30 28.432 86.769 10.0 WESTERN XIZANG
5.0 2010/02/26 04:41:29 0.892 123.194 66.6 MINAHASA, SULAWESI, INDONESIA
5.5 2010/02/26 01:07:58 23.782 122.839 34.7 TAIWAN REGION
5.5 2010/02/26 00:11:51 -55.882 -5.052 6.0 SOUTHERN MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE
5.0 2010/02/25 11:26:36 -23.765 -175.713 107.0 TONGA REGION
5.2 2010/02/25 08:03:41 51.703 -176.019 42.2 ANDREANOF ISLANDS, ALEUTIAN IS., ALASKA

After four headline-making earthquakes so early in 2010, in Eureka (California), Haiti, Chile, and now Taiwan, I’m remembering a passage from Fritjof Capra, The Web of Life: A New Scientific Understanding of Living systems. He is discussing “whether the Gaia system can indeed be described as autopoietic,” meaning that the organization of the components of the earth regenerates the components:

The Gaia system is also clearly self-generating [one of three criteria proposed by Gail Fleischaker]. The planetary metabolism converts inorganic substances into organic, living matter and back into soil, oceans and air. All components of the Gaian network, including those of its atmospheric boundary, are produced by processes within the network.

A key characteristic on Gaia is the complex interweaving of living and nonliving systems within a single web. This results in feedback loops of vastly differing scales. Rock cycles, for example extend over hundreds of millions of years, while the organisms associated with them have very short life spans. In the metaphor of Stephan Harding, ecologist and collaborator of James Lovelock: “living beings come out of rocks and go back into rocks.”

How could this lead to earthquakes?

When the algae die, their shells rain down to the ocean floor, where they form massive sediments of limestone( another form of calcium carbonate). Because of their enormous weight, the limestone sediments gradually sink into the mantle of the Earth and melt and may even trigger the movements of tectonic plates. Eventually some of the CO2 contained in the molten rocks is spewed out again by volcanoes and sent on another round in the great Gaian cycle.

My thinking on this is hazy. But we have entered a massive species die-off, due to a number of factors–many man-made. As the death toll rises and other factors involved–global warming; tundra, seabed, and glacial melt; and atmospheric composition changes–play out, well, it just seems like we’re having an awful lot of big earthquakes lately.

There’s no good way to tell. That the number of seismographs has increased dramatically means that more earthquakes will be detected. Probably strong earthquakes will be detected regardless, and the U.S.G.S. claims those have remained relatively constant. I’ll have to take their word for it.

But the passages I’ve taken from Fritjof Capra are in his explanation of complexity theory. He makes a compelling case for it. In any discussion of climate change, it is increasingly apparent that we should be looking at cascading effects, like global warming replacing highly reflective ice surfaces with more heat-absorbing land and ocean surfaces leading to more global warming, like global warming leading to increased methane releases leading to more global warming, and like global warming leading to low oxygen “dead zones” in the Pacific that kill aquatic animal life, presumably including algae, and definitely including (bottom dwelling) shell fish, which I’m guessing can produce a similar effect to the dead algae shells that Capra describes.

Scientists are unsure how low oxygen levels will affect the ocean ecosystem. Bottom-dwelling species could be at the greatest risk because they move slowly and might not be able to escape the lower oxygen levels. Most fish can swim out of danger. Some species, however, such as chinook salmon, may have to start swimming at shallower depths than they’re used to. Whether the low oxygen zones will change salmon migration routes is unclear.

Some species, such as jellyfish, will like the lower-oxygen water. Jumbo squid, usually found off Mexico and Central America, can survive as oxygen levels decrease and now are found as far north as Alaska.

Are the powerful earthquakes we’ve experienced this year the result of climate change? I’ll be so bold as to say probably not. Could they be in the future? They very well might be.

Author: benfell

David Benfell holds a Ph.D. in Human Science from Saybrook University. He earned a M.A. in Speech Communication from CSU East Bay in 2009 and has studied at California Institute of Integral Studies. He is an anarchist, a vegetarian ecofeminist, a naturist, and a Taoist.

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